Incidences of fungal leaf spot disease in buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in some selected pasture farms in Tanzania
Keywords:African foxtail grass, seedborne pathogenic fungi, leaf blight disease, endophytic fungi
Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) is one of the important perennial forage grasses in the pasture farms of Tanzania. It is highly nutritious, drought-resistant, grazing-tolerant, and with rapid growth characteristics. Field observation of leaf spot disease in buffel grass was conducted during the months of April, May, and July 2012 at three pasture farms in Tanzania. Laboratory and greenhouse fungal pathogenicity studies for buffel grass seedlings were conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. This study was set to investigate the health status of buffel grass from selected pasture seed farms for screening seed-borne fungal species of economic importance. It was also set to establish the pathogenic fungi effects on leaves of buffel grass seedlings.The incidence of leaf spot disease in buffel grass was 54%. Fungal pathogens of economic importance that were detected in this study include Phoma spp (28.5%), Curvularia lunata (17.34%), Alternaria alternata (14.1%), and Bipolaris spp. (12.2%). Pathogenicity of Bipolaris spp. Phoma spp., Pyricularia grisea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Exserohilum rostratum, and Nigrospora oryzae were confirmed on C. ciliaris seedlings. The highest disease incidence was observed on buffel grass seedlings sprayed with Bipolaris spp (40%), while the lowest disease incidence was observed on plants sprayed with E. rostratum (27.5%). In particular, the order of virulence of the pathogenic fungal species was Bipolaris spp > P. grisea > Phoma spp. > F. pallidoroseum > E. rostratum (40%, 37.5%, 35.0%, 32.5%, and 27.5%, respectively). All identified pathogenic fungi species are seed-borne and with reported ability to cause leaf spot diseases in several other tropical forage grass species. Further research on innovative technologies and practices for controlling fungal infectious diseases in buffel grass seeds and leaves is suggested.
Agarwal VK, Sinclair JB (1997) Principles of Seed Pathology. Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-670-1.
Al-Dakheel AJ, Hussain MI, Rahman AQMA (2015) Impact of irrigation water salinity on agronomical and quality attributes of Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions. Agricultural Water Management 159:148-154. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.014
Brecht MO, Stiles CM, Datnoff LE (2007) Evaluation of pathogenicity of Bipolaris and Curvularia spp. on dwarf and ultra-dwarf Bermuda grasses in Florida. Plant Health Progress 8:30. DOI: 10.1094/PHP-2007-0119-02-RS
Campbell MA, Medd RW (2003) Leaf, ﬂoret and seed infection of wheat by Pyrenophora semeniperda. Plant Pathology 52:437-447. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00856.x
Cook BG (2007) Tropical Forages database (SoFT) - Buffel grass. Available at: http//www.tropicalforages.info/key/forage/media/Html/Cenchrus_ciliaris.htm. Accessed on December 11, 2021.
Chandramohan S, Charudattan R, Sonoda RM, Singh M (2002) Field evaluation of a fungal pathogen mixture for the control of seven weedy grasses. Weed Science 50:204-213. DOI: 10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0204:FEOAFP]2.0.CO;2
Diaz-Franco A, Mendez-Rodriguez A (2005) Leaf blight [Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc.] in buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) meadows and reaction of genotypes in northern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia 23:232-237.
Fletcher J, Luster D, Bostock R, Burans J, Cardwell K, GottwaldT, Smith K (2010) Emerging infectious plant diseases. Emerging Infections 9:337-366. DOI: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch18
Ghiasian SA, Kord-Bacheh P, Rezayat SM, Maghsood AH, Taherkhani H (2004) Mycoflora of Iranian maize harvested in the main production areas in 2000. Mycopathology 158:113–121. DOI: 10.1023/B:MYCO.0000038425.95049.03
Habib A, Sahi ST, Javed N and Ahmad S (2011) Prevalence of seed-borne fungi on wheat during storage and its impact on seed germination. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 23:42-47pp. Available at: https://www.pjp.pakps.com/files/42-47--Amir-Habib.pdf. Accessed on March 14 2022
Hajihasani M, Abolfazi H, and Khaghani S (2012) Incidence and distribution of seed-borne fungi associated with wheat in Markazi Province, Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology 11:6290-6295. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.3838
Jorge M, Van De Wouw M, Hanson J, Mohammed J (2008) Characterisation of a collection of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Tropical Grasslands 42:27-39.
Jugah B, Kadir A, Ahmad M, Sariah M, Juraimi AS (2007) Fungal Pathogen of Rottboellia cochinchinensis and its Potential as Bioherbicide. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6:21-28.
Kleczewski NM, Flory SL, Clay K (2012) Variation in pathogenicity and host range of Bipolaris sp. causing leaf blight disease on the invasive grass Microstegium vimineum. Weed Science 60:486-493. DOI: 10.1614/WS-D-11-00187.1
Kleczewski NM, Flory SL (2010) Leaf blight disease on the invasive grass Microstegium vimineum caused by a Bipolaris spp. Plant disease, 94:807-811. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-7-0807
Louws FJ, Fulbright DW, Stephens CT, De Bruijn FJ (1994) Specific genomic fingerprints of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas pathovars and strains generated with repetitive sequences and PCR. Applied and environmental microbiology 60:2286-2295. DOI: 10.1128/aem.60.7.2286-2295.1994
Magarey RD, Sutton TB, Thayer CL (2005) A simple generic infection model for foliar fungal plant pathogens. Phytopathology 95:92-100. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO-95-0092
Maleko D, Msalya G, Mwilawa A, Pasape L, Mtei K (2018) Smallholder dairy cattle feeding technologies and practices in Tanzania: failures, successes, challenges and prospects for sustainability. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 16:201-213. DOI: 10.1080/14735903.2018.1440474
Marshall VM, Lewis MM, Ostendorf B (2012) Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as an invader and threat to biodiversity in arid environments: Areview. Journal of Arid Environments 78:1-12.
Masi M, Santoro E, Clement S, Meyer S, Scafato P, Superchi S, Evidente A (2020) Further secondary metabolites produced by the fungus Pyricularia grisea isolated from buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Chirality 32:1234-1242. DOI: 10.1002/chir.23270
Mathur SB, Kongsdal O (2003) Common Laboratory Seed Health Testing Methods for Detecting Fungi. Danish Government Institiute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries. Bassersdorf, ISTA. CH-Switzerland 427pp.
Mathur SB, Manandhar HK (2003) Fungi in Seeds Recorded at the Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries (1st Edn). Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries: Copenhagen, Denmark, 814p.
Ndomba R (2009) Screening for seed-borne micro-organisms in selected pasture seeds. Unpublished MSc. Dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.
Samuels GJ, Sivanesan A (1989) Graminicolous species of Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum and their teleomorphs. Mycologia 81(170). DOI: 10.2307/3759472.
Sanogo S, Moorman GW (1993) Transmission and control of Pythium aphanidermatum in an ebb and flow sub irrigation system. Plant Disease 77:287–290.
SAS Institute Inc (2010) SAS/STAT Software, version 9.3. Cary, NC.
Thorp S (2015) Feeding Africa's livestock: fodder and forage solutions. Spore 174:13-17.
Victoria-Arellano AD, Guatimosim E, da Silva GM, Frank AK, Dallagnol LJ (2021) Fungi causing leaf spot diseases in Lolium multiflorum in Brazil. Mycological Progress 20:1175-1190. DOI: 10.1007/s11557-021-01727-3
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Multidisciplinary Science Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.