Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods: occurrence, veterinary legislation and perceived risk factors in Cameroon

Authors

  • Stanly Fon Tebug International Committee of the Red Cross, Juba, South Sudan
  • Wilfred Angie Abia Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon
  • Thomas Tumassang Tebug Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon
  • Gabriel Teno New Brunswick Institute for Research, Data and Training (NB-IRDT), University of New Brunswick, Canada
  • Mohamed Mouliom Moctar Mouiche Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022012

Keywords:

antibiotics, animal sourced-foods, contaminants, one health, risk perception

Abstract

The presence of veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods (ADF) remains a public health concern in low-income countries such as Cameroon. This paper provides an overview of the current status of antimicrobial (AM) residues in ADF, veterinary legislation on the use of AM and perception of risk factors with emphasis on the need for sustainable management in Cameroon from a one health perspective. Results show that a wide range of antimicrobials is used in the country with little or no attention to good veterinary practices. Residues of commonly used AM agents including those banned for use in food animal production in high-income countries were reported. The current legislation on the use of veterinary drugs is weak and does not make provision for key concepts such as Maximum Residue Limit. Veterinarians argue that the lack of disease diagnostic facilities and excessive use of AM has led to the presence of residues in ADFs. The government and relevant agencies need to enforce regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. Further, awareness creation through educational campaigns for users and consumers as well as the implementation of measures to restrict prescription and dispensation of AM agents to recognised veterinarians are necessary. More studies on AM residues in ADFs are needed to support veterinary drug surveillance policies. This paper strongly suggests collaboration between food safety experts, animal and human health professionals as well as policymakers to help implement good surveillance of antimicrobial use and to safeguard potent AM suitable for disease control for forthcoming generations.

References

Adesokan HK, Akanbi IO, Akanbi IM, Obaweda RA (2015) Pattern of antimicrobial usage in livestock animals in south-western Nigeria: The need for alternative plans. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 82:816.

Afnabi RB, Sambo JJN, Mouiche MMM, Namegni RSP (2019) Hazard assessment of Staphylococcus with positive coagulase in meat produced and distributed in the Northern regions of Cameroon. Veterinary World 12:466-471.

Almazrou DA, Ali S, Al-Abdulkarim DA, Albalawi AF, Alzhrani JA (2019) Information seeking behavior and awareness among physicians regarding drug information centers in Saudi Arabia. Pharmacy Practice (Granada). DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2019.2.1498

Baynes RE, Dedonder K, Kissell L, Mzyk D, Marmulak T, Smith G, Tell L, Gehring R, Davis J, Riviere JE (2016) Health concerns and management of select veterinary drug residues. Food Chem Toxicol 88:112–122.

Canton L, Alvarez L, Canton C, Ceballos L, Farias C, Lanusse C, Moreno L (2019) Effect of cooking on the stability of veterinary drug residues in chicken eggs. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2019.1609704

Cheng AC, Turnidge J, Collignon P, Looke D, Barton M, Gottlieb T (2012) Control of fluoroquinolone resistance through successful regulation, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.3201/eid1809.111515

Collignon PJ, McEwen SA (2019) One Health—Its Importance in Helping to Better Control Antimicrobial Resistance. Tropical Medicine Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4010022

Council of Canadian Academies (2019) When Antibiotics Fail: The Expert Panel on the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Antimicrobial Resistance in Canada. Ottawa (ON). Available at: http://www.deslibris.ca/ID/10102747. Accessed on September 6, 2021.

De Briyne N, Atkinson J, Pokludová L, Borriello SP, Price S (2013) Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe. Veterinary Records. DOI: 10.1136/vr.101454

Delia G (2015) Review of evidence on antimicrobial resistance and animal agriculture in developing countries. DOI: 10.12774/eod_cr.june2015.graced

Edima HC, Tofain JT, Ngoune LT, Ndjouenkeu R (2012) Assessment of antibiotic residues in cow milk produced in Ngaoundere. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences 1:1530–1538.

Eisler MC, Magona JW, Revie CW (2012) Diagnosis of Cattle Diseases Endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa: Evaluating a Low Cost Decision Support Tool in Use by Veterinary Personnel. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040687

Enahoro D, Mason-D’Croz D, Mul M, Rich KM, Robinson TP, Thornton P, Staal SS (2019) Supporting sustainable expansion of livestock production in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: Scenario analysis of investment options. Global Food Security. DOI: 10.1016/j.gfs.2019.01.001

European Commission (2010) Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010 of December 22, 2009 on pharmacologically active substances and their classification regarding maximum residue limits in foodstuffs of animal origin. Brussels: Official Journal of the European Union. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health//sites/health/files/files/mrl/mrl_20101212_consol.pdf. Accessed on April 6, 2021.

Fossi BT, Akoachere J-FTK, Nchanji GT, Wanji S (2017) Occurrence, heat and antibiotic resistance profile of Bacillus cereus isolated from raw cow and processed milk in Mezam Division, Cameroon. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 70(1):43–51.

Guetiya Wadoum RE, Zambou NF, Anyangwe FF, Njimou JR, Coman MM, Verdenelli MC, Cecchini C, Silvi S, Orpianesi C, Cresci A, Colizzi V (2016) Abusive use of antibiotics in poultry farming in Cameroon and the public health implications. Br Poultry Science. DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2016.1180668

Institute of Medicine (2010)Antibiotic resistance implications for global health and novel intervention strategies : workshop summary. In: Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary: National Academies Press (US); Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54257/. Accessed on September 5, 2021

Jovanovic J, Ornelis VFM, Madder A, Rajkovic A (2021) Bacillus cereus food intoxication and toxicoinfection. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12785

Kamini MG, Tatfo Keutchatang F, Yangoua Mafo H, Kansci G, Medoua Nama G (2016) Antimicrobial usage in the chicken farming in Yaoundé, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Food Contamination. DOI: 10.1186/s40550-016-0034-6

Keutchatang FDPT, Kamgain ADT, Ntsama ISB, Nama GM, Kansci G (2019) Practices of Usage of Antibiotics in Chicken Farming and Impact of Some of their Residues in Products Consumed in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Advances in Nutrition & Food Science 4.

Kraker MEA de, Stewardson AJ, Harbarth S (2016) Will 10 Million People Die a Year due to Antimicrobial Resistance by 2050? DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002184

Krishna Bahadur K, Legwegoh AF, Therien A, Fraser EDG, Antwi‐Agyei P (2018) Food Price, Food Security and Dietary Diversity: A Comparative Study of Urban Cameroon and Ghana. Journal of International Development. 30(1):42–60.

Maron DF, Smith TJ, Nachman KE (2013) Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey. Globalization and Health. DOI:10.1186/1744-8603-9-48

Mensah SEP, Koudande OD, Sanders P, Laurentie M, Mensah GA, Abiola FA (2014) Résidus d’antibiotiques et denrées d’origine animale en Afrique : risques de santé publique. Revue Scientifique et Technique de l’OIE 33:975–986.

Mouiche MMM, Moffo F, Akoachere J-FTK, Okah-Nnane NH, Mapiefou NP, Ndze VN, Wade A, Djuikwo-Teukeng FF, Toghoua DGT, Zambou HR, et al (2019a) Antimicrobial resistance from a one health perspective in Cameroon: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7450-5

Mouiche MMM, Moffo F, Betsama JDB, Mapiefou NP, Mbah CK, Mpouam SE, Penda RE, Ciake SAC, Feussom JMK, Kamnga ZF, Awah-Ndukum J (2020) Challenges of antimicrobial consumption surveillance in food-producing animals in Sub-Saharan African countries: Patterns of antimicrobial imported in Cameroon from 2014 to 2019. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.06.021

Mouiche MMM, Njingou BZN, Moffo F, Mpouam SE, Feussom JMK, Awah-Ndukum J (2019b) Veterinary pharmacovigilance in sub-Sahara Africa context: a pilot study of adverse reactions to veterinary medicine in Cameroon. BMC Veterinary Research. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-2043-1

Nfor BM, Corazzin M, Fonteh FA, Aziwo NT, Galeotti M, Piasentier E (2014) Quality and Safety of Beef Produced in Central African Sub-Region. Italian Journal of Animal Science. DOI:10.4081/ijas.2014.3114

Ngogang MP, Ernest T, Kariuki J, Mouliom Mouiche MM, Ngogang J, Wade A, van der Sande MAB (2021) Microbial Contamination of Chicken Litter Manure and Antimicrobial Resistance Threat in an Urban Area Setting in Cameroon. Antibiotics. DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics10010020

Ngoune LT, Tanedjeu KS, Mbofung CMF (2009) Impact de l’utilisation des antibiotiques sur la sensibilité des bactéries pathogènes de poules dans la ville de Ngaoundéré. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology DOI: 10.4314/cajeb.v5i2.51937

Nisha AR (2008) Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard. Veterinary World 1:375-377

Ntsama ISB, Tambe BA, Tsafack Takadong JJ, Medoua Nama G, Kansci G (2018) Characteristics of fish farming practices and agrochemicals usage therein in four regions of Cameroon. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 44:145–153.

Ordre National des Vétérinaires du Cameroun (2021) Textes réglementaires. Available at: : https://www.onvc.org/a-propos/textes-reglementaires/. Accessed on March 11, 2021.

Pouokam GB, Foudjo BUS, Samuel C, Yamgai PF, Silapeux AK, Sando JT, Atonde GF, Frazzoli C (2017) Contaminants in Foods of Animal Origin in Cameroon: A One Health Vision for Risk Management “from Farm to Fork.” Front Public Health DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00197

President of the Republic of Cameroon (2018) Law No.2018/020 of 11 December 2018 - Framework Law on Food Safety. Available at: https://www.prc.cm/en/multimedia/documents/6828-law-no-2018-020-of-11-12-2018-food-safety. Accessed on March 11, 2021.

Riley LW, Raphael EM, Faerstein EM (2013) Obesity in the United States – Dysbiosis from Exposure to Low-Dose Antibiotics? Front Public Health DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00069

Rousham EK, Unicomb L, Islam MA (2018) Human, animal and environmental contributors to antibiotic resistance in low-resource settings: integrating behavioural, epidemiological and One Health approaches. Proccedings in Biological Sciences. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0332

SurveyMonkey (2022) Survey Monkey available at: www.surveyMonkey.com. Accessed on February 21, 2022

Tang KL, Caffrey NP, Nóbrega DB, Cork SC, Ronksley PE, Barkema HW, Polachek AJ, Ganshorn H, Sharma N, Kellner JD, Ghali WA (2017) Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibiotic resistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Planetary Health. DOI: 10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30141-9

Tebug SF, Missohou A, Sabi SS, Juga J, Poole EJ, Tapio M, Marshall K (2016) Using body measurements to estimate live weight of dairy cattle in low-input systems in Senegal. Journal of Applied Animal Research.DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2016.1262265

Tebug SF, Mouiche MMM, Abia WA, Teno G, Tiambo CK, Moffo F, Awah-Ndukum J (2021) Antimicrobial use and practices by animal health professionals in 20 sub-Saharan African countries. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105212

Tollefson L, Miller MA (2000) Antibiotic use in food animals: controlling the human health impact. Journal of AOAC Intinternational 83:245–254.

Van Gool F (2015) Review of requirements and processes for registration of veterinary products in selected African and Asian countries. London, UK: GALVmed.

Vougat Ngom RRB, Garabed RB, Rumbeiha WK, Foyet HS, Schrunk DE, Shao D, Zoli Pagnah A (2017a) Penicillin-G and oxytetracycline residues in beef sold for human consumption in Maroua, Cameroon. International Journal of Food Contamination. DOI: 10.1186/s40550-017-0062-x

Vougat Ngom RRB, Tomdieu T, Ziébé R, Foyet HS, Moritz M, Vondou L, Schrunk DE, Imerman PM, Rumbeiha WK, Garabed RB (2017b) Quality of veterinary pharmaceuticals and their use by pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Pastoralism. DOI: 10.1186/s13570-017-0081-5

World Health Organization (2015) WHO | Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance [Internet]. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Available at:. http://www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/publications/global-action-plan/en/. Accessed on May 15, 2021

World Health Organization (2017) Integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne bacteria: application of a one health approach: guidance from the WHO Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillanec of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/255747. Accessed on May 13, 2021

World Organisation for Animal Health (2010) Veterinary legislation : OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health. In: Djerba, Tunisia; p. 7. http://www.oie.int/en/solidarity/veterinary-legislation/.Accessed on April, 2019

World Organisation for Animal Health (2015) OIE list of antimicrobials of veterinary importance. Paris: World Organisation for Animal Health; https://www.oie.int/en/what-we-do/publications/.Accessed: October 24, 2021.

Wouembe FDK (2013) Analyse de l’usage des antibiotiques dans les élevages avicoles modernes de poules pondeuses de la région de l’ouest du Cameroun. DVM Thesis,. Université CheiKh Anta Diop de Dakar. Available at: http://www.beep.ird.fr/collect/eismv/index/assoc/TD13-8.dir/TD13-8.pdf. Accessed on October 24, 2021.

Strategies to curb antibiotic residues in animal-derived food in Cameroon by veterinarians based on an online survey, 2020

Downloads

Published

2022-03-28

How to Cite

Tebug, S. F., Abia, W. A. ., Tebug, T. T. ., Teno, G. ., & Mouiche, M. M. M. . (2022). Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods: occurrence, veterinary legislation and perceived risk factors in Cameroon. Multidisciplinary Science Journal, 4, e2022012. https://doi.org/10.29327/multiscience.2022012

Issue

Section

Research Article