This study was designed to investigate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on the reproductive performance of premature male rats and to evaluate the influence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in conserving their fecundity. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The control group (CG n=20 rats), cholesterol feeding group 1 (CFG1 n=20 rats) were fed 1.5% cholesterol with diet for one month, and cholesterol feeding group 2 (CFG2 n= 20 rats) were fed 1.5% cholesterol with diet + ALA 100 mg/kg body weight supplied by water for one month. The results revealed that compared to CG and CFG2, CFG1's body weight increased significantly. After consuming cholesterol for one month, CFG1's lipid profile revealed a substantial rise in blood cholesterol and triglycerides when compared to CG and the group that consumed ALA CFG2. In comparison to CGF1 and CG, the results of the sperm parameters in CGF2 demonstrated a large rise in sperm count with sperm live percentage and a considerable decrease in sperm abnormality %. Rats from CFG1 had significantly lower serum testosterone levels than rats from CFG2 and CG, according to the hormonal profile. We conclude that the significance of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in preserving fertility ALA is a strong antioxidant that may preserve the parameters of the sperm of hyperlipidemic preterm rats, which may improve the capacity of hyperlipidemic rats to conceive.