Multidisciplinary Reviews <p class="font_8"><strong>Multidisciplinary Reviews</strong> is the <em>first multidisciplinary open-access journal</em> of the world, where, EXCLUSIVELY, Review Articles, Mini-Reviews, and Research Articles with Questionnaire Applications are published. <strong>Multidisciplinary Reviews</strong> is published online by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-content="" data-type="external">Malque Publishing</a> </strong>in CONTINUOUS FLOW mode.</p> <p><strong>High Visibility:</strong> Dimensions, CiteFactor, Scilit, Google Scholar, Diadorim, Directory of Research Journals Indexing, Latindex, CrossRef, Research Bible, among others. We are already being evaluated for indexing in Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), SCOPUS (Elsevier), and CAB International.</p> <p><strong>Rapid Publication:</strong> manuscripts are peer-reviewed and a first decision is provided to authors approximately 25-30 days after submission.</p> <p><strong>Article Processing Charge (APC): Free! </strong>This discount is valid for all authors who wish to publish Open Access and submit their articles <em>in English</em> by <em>June 30, 2022</em>.</p> Malque Publishing en-US Multidisciplinary Reviews 2595-3982 A mini-review on bovine stromal mesenchymal cells sustainability and innovativeness <p>Animal experiments are conducted to demonstrate proof-of-concept and mechanisms of action, provide safe cell culture methods, carry out tissue engineering, and study infectious disease pathogenesis. Regarding the sustainable principles of the 3Rs, namely, refinement, reduction, and replacement, animal and human biological systems have been used. By definition, the Wharton's jelly (WJ) layer is a connective tissue localized in the middle of the umbilical vessels and amniotic epithelium. In this review, we would like to state that these cells belong to the division of primitive stromal cells. Because the WJ layer is an economical source of cells, the use of this resource would improve areas such as regenerative medicine, biotechnology, and agronomics worldwide in accordance with sustainability.</p> Jamila Cristina Baptistella Letícia Colin Panegossi Rafaela Vilar Constantini Tereza Cristina Cardoso Roberto Gameiro de Carvalho Copyright (c) 2022 Multidisciplinary Reviews 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 5 e2022007 e2022007 10.31893/multirev.2022007 Principles and cautions in the infrared thermography application in sheep <p>Infrared thermography is a safe technology for diagnostic imaging that preserves welfare and does not emit ionizing radiation. This paper aimed to report the principles of infrared thermography formation and cautions on imaging acquisition with sheep illustrations. This technique is based on capturing infrared electromagnetic energy from the matter molecules, proportional to the increase in temperature. The capture of images, not just in sheep, must obey technical criteria to avoid interpretation errors of the thermograms. Direct exposure to solar radiation, humidity, manipulation of the examined area, time of day, proper use of equipment, and the manifestation of certain behaviors can hinder the interpretation of the findings. Infrared thermography is a tool that helps practitioners because it provides practicality, safety, and accurate data.</p> Rodrigo Formiga Leite Luan Aragão Rodrigues Manoel Alves de Freitas Neto Francisco Roserlândio Botão Nogueira Jorge Domingos da Silva Lima Bonifácio Benício de Souza Eldinê Gomes de Miranda Neto Copyright (c) 2022 Multidisciplinary Reviews 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 e2022001 e2022001 10.31893/multirev.2022001 The efficacy of Alpha Lipoic Acid in public health and veterinary medicine: a review paper <p>Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA<strong>)</strong> is a fatty acid that mainly synthases mammals and plants. Alpha lipoic acid is found in trace amounts, soluble in water and fat. ALA plays an essential role in the body's synthases of glutathione, the body's most important endogenous antioxidant, supporting healthy vision, protecting cells from free radicals, and enhancing liver functions. Additionally, ALA helps dissolve toxic substances in the liver. In the present review, we described the history with the physical and biochemical properties of ALA besides highlighting its functions in living organisms. We also reviewed the benefits of using synthetic forms of ALA in domestic animals to prevent and treat medical disorders. In conclusion, in addition to its role in enhancing body functions, ALA also plays a major role as a valuable antioxidant that could give an advantage to its use as a promising treatment against the widespread infection in animals and humans.</p> Zainab Abdul Hussein Saud Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Reviews 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 e2022002 e2022002 10.31893/multirev.2022002 Milk yield and reproductive performances of crossbred dairy cows with different genotypes in Ethiopia: a review paper <p>Crossbreeding for improving milk yield and reproductive performances had started and implemented been long in Ethiopia in different locations. The present study focused on reviewing and generating compiled information about the status (potential) of milk yield and reproductive performances of crossbred dairy cows, which have been done at different stations and farm conditions in different eras. Review results of milk production and reproductive performances in Ethiopia varied greatly from one genotype to another. The on-station lactation milk yield and lactation length were ranged from 1293 to 2957 kg and 303 to 374 days, respectively, whereas the on-farm review results were within the values of on-station conditions. The on-station reproductive performances had also obtained in the range from 25.5 to 30.3 for age at first service (AFS), 28.5 to 46.9 for age at first calving (AFC), 351 to 546 for calving interval (CI), 76 to 243 for days open (DO) and 1.3 to 2.7 for the number of service per conception (NSC), respectively. The on-farm review results for reproductive performances had also within the range of on-station conditions. Among the genotypes, the 50% F<sub>1</sub> and 75% Holstein Friesian first generations were considered suitable for milk production parameters, whereas Jersey crosses, especially 50% F<sub>1</sub> are recommended for better reproductive performances. The on-station development of 50% F<sub>2</sub>, F<sub>3,</sub> and 75% second generations showed low milk production and reproductive performances and the likelihood of producing synthetic breed in this step did not give us a promising result. Regardless of blood level and genotype difference, the performance of on-farm crossbred cows was almost similar to on-station experimental cows. Crossbred cows were affected by non-genetic factors like year, season, and parity, depending on the breed and study location. In general, crossbred cows have good milk yield and reproductive performances compared to indigenous (local) breeds. However, crossbred animals could not exploit their maximum potentials because animals are subjected to different environmental effects.</p> Kefale Getahun Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Reviews 2022-01-28 2022-01-28 5 e2022003 e2022003 10.31893/multirev.2022003 Role of integrating beekeeping with water shade management in Ethiopia <p>The review was conducted to assess the available scientific information on the role of beekeeping in improving the livelihood of the beekeeper and enhancing watershed rehabilitation. Honeybees and flowering plants have a well-developed system of interdependence. However, the rich biodiversity of Ethiopia is under serious threat from deforestation and land degradation, overexploitation, overgrazing, habitat loss, invasive species, and some water pollution. The underlying causes for these problems emanate from poverty, population growth, lack of alternative livelihoods, inadequate policy support, inappropriate investment, and inadequacy of law enforcement. More than 5 million beehives in Ethiopia have managed approximately 1.4-1.7 million farm households with 45,905 tons of honey production per year. Beekeeping is important as a strong incentive and the cheapest eco-friendly approach to promote conservation of natural ecosystems as an adjunct to conventional subsistence agriculture in the face of the growing human population and demand for land. Many countries introduced improved beekeeping as reforestation incentives, paying particular attention to plant flowering trees that provide nectar and pollen while generating income for local communities from bee products. The most serious constraint of the honey bee is the application of chemicals such as fungicides, pesticides, and herbicides, which hinder the productivity and production of honey bee colonies. Therefore, the focus should be given to those chemicals that do not harm honey bees, and the application should not match with flowering seasons to minimize the poisoning effect on the honey bee.</p> Chala Kinati Copyright (c) 2022 Multidisciplinary Reviews 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 5 e2022004 e2022004 10.31893/multirev.2022004 Nutritional recommendations for surfing: a narrative review <p>In recent years, many areas of health have produced studies that support the evolution of sport, such as sports medicine and nutrition. Nutritional strategies serve as fuel for the practice of sport and to meet the body's demands. This study aimed to evaluate the food intake of surfers through clinical studies and observe if they are following the current nutritional recommendations. This study is an analytical research of the narrative review type. The <em>Google Scholar</em>, <em>Pubmed</em>, and <em>Scielo</em> databases were consulted to carry out this study. The studies analyzed are between 2004 and 2020. The results found in the present review demonstrate that most surfers have an inadequate diet, with low consumption of fiber, fruits, and vegetables. The carbohydrate intake of surfers is below the carbohydrate recommendation for improving physical performance (6-10 g/kg of body weight), a good percentage of body fat, evaluation of inadequate food consumption by frequency of consumption, and daily portions within the recommendation.</p> Amanda Dionisio Pereira Rodrigo Pereira da Silva Dilmar Pinto Guedes Jr Jean Silvestre Copyright (c) 2022 Multidisciplinary Reviews 2022-02-24 2022-02-24 5 e2022005 e2022005 10.31893/multirev.2022005 The influence of vitamin D on postpartum depression <p>Postpartum depression is considered a childbirth-related mood disorder and starts between the first day and four months after delivery. Its clinical manifestation includes extreme sadness, pleasure loss, sleep disturbances, guilt feelings and worthlessness, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts. Maternal depression can impair the baby's behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development. Vitamin D is considered a steroid hormone derived from cholesterol, with endogenous synthesis after sun exposure, and can be found through food sources such as fish and egg yolks. Low serum 25-Hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) are linked to several diseases: osteopenia; mood disorder; cardiovascular diseases; premenstrual syndrome; major depressive disorder; cancer; autoimmune disorders; pre-eclampsia; seasonal affective disorder; and postpartum depression. Studies have shown that low levels of 25-OH-D can be related to symptoms of postpartum depression, whose symptoms of depression are obtained through validated questionnaires. This review paper aimed to establish the relationship between low vitamin D levels and postpartum depression symptoms. A search for review articles published between 2016 and 2021 was performed. The articles analyzed show that low vitamin D levels are related to postpartum depression symptoms. More research is needed to track vitamin D levels during pregnancy to prevent and/or reduce postpartum depression.</p> Julia de Paula Pereira da Silva Everton dos Santos Barros Ricardo Souhail Haddad Copyright (c) 2022 Multidisciplinary Reviews 2022-02-22 2022-02-22 5 e2022006 e2022006 10.31893/multirev.2022006