• Abstract

    China and the Philippines have a long history of relations. This relationship has developed and achieved many significant milestones despite many ups and downs. China’s rise began around 2010 when it surpassed Japan to become the world’s second largest economy after the United States. This drew the attention of countries in the region seeking opportunities from China’s development. Moreover, to realize its strategic ambitions as a great power in the 21st century, China had to set strong goals, with the economy as the driving force behind all development activities. And the Philippines, a neighboring country with many characteristics suitable for China’s political, economic and diplomatic goals, became an important factor in China’s rise. In implementing a policy of closer relations with China, the Philippines could not ignore the influence of the United States. Because the Philippines is one of the United States’ Asian allies, along with Japan, South Korea and Australia, and a driving force behind the United States’ policy of increasing dominance in the Asia-Pacific region. This article will focus on studying the impact of the United States on China and the Philippines, as well as the process of Philippine-China relations in many fields, with a focus on politics-diplomacy, economy and security-defense in the first two decades of the 21st century.

  • References

    1. Asia – Europe Meeting. 2019. Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM). The Diplomatic Service of the European Union, accessed on February 5, 2023. https://www.eeas.europa.eu/eeas/asia-europe-meeting-asem_en
    2. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. 2024. What is Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation? Home page of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, accessed February 7, 2023. https://www.apec.org/about-us/about-apec
    3. Association of South East Asian Nations. 2024. What we do. Home page of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, accessed on February 8, 2023. https://asean.org/what-we-do/
    4. Balboa, Jenny. 2020. Duterte’s Foreign Policy Pivot and Its Impact on Philippine Trade and Investments: An International Political Economy Perspective. Philippines Political Science Journal 41(1-2): 127-160. DOI:10.1163/2165025X-BJA10009
    5. Banlaoi, Rommel. 2002. The Role of Philippines – American Relations in the Global Campaign Against Terrorism: Implications for Regional Security. Contemporary Southeast Asia 24 (2): 294-314. https://web.archive.org/web/20040414173137id_/http://users.rowan.edu:80/~line/philippine3.pdf
    6. Baviera, Aileen. 2016. President Duterte’s Foreign Policy Challenges. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 38 (2): 202-208. muse.jhu.edu/article/628452.
    7. Baviera, Aileen. (2012). The Influence of Domestic Politics on Philippine Foreign Policy: The case of Philippines-China relations since 2004. RSIS Working Paper 241: 1-53. https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/rsis-pubs/WP241.pdf
    8. Camba, Alvin. 2023. From Aquino to Marcos: political survival and Philippine foreign policy towards China. Journal of Contemporary East Asia Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/24761028.2023.2281165
    9. Chuong, Nguyen Anh. 2016. Philippines - China relations from 2001 to present. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 10 (216): 35-43.
    10. De Castro, Renato Cruz. 2009. The US-Philippine Alliance: An Evolving Hedge against an Emerging China Challenge. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 31 (3): 399-423. muse.jhu.edu/article/370828.
    11. De Castro, Renato Cruz. 2019. China’s belt and road initiative (BRI) and the Duterte administration’s appeasement policy: Examining the connection between the two national strategies. East Asia 36 (3): 205-227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12140-019-09315-9
    12. De Castro, Renato Cruz. 2015. The Philippines Confronts China in the South China Sea: Power Politics vs. Liberalism-Legalism. Asian Perspective 39 (1): 71-100. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43738115
    13. Demi, Michael Peele. 2017. Duterte plays a “cat-and-mouse game” with the United States and China. The Financial Times, accessed on February 20, 2023. http://www.ftchinese.com/story/001072505?full=y&archive
    14. Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Republic of the Philippines All Rights Reserved. 2009. Overview of China-Philippines Bilateral Relations. Home page of Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Republic of the Philippines All Rights Reserved, accessed on March 20, 2023. http://ph.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/zfgx/zzgx/200501/t20050121_1336099.htm
    15. Embassy of the Philippines in bejing China. 2020. Philippines – China relations. Home page of Embassy of the Philippines in bejing China, accessed on March 22, 2023. https://beijingpe.dfa.gov.ph/overview-of-philippines-china-relations/84-phl-chn-relations
    16. Ernst, Maximilian. 2022. Control Through Cooperation? Assessing China’s Economic and Military-Strategic Interests in the South China Sea. The Journal of Territorial and Maritime Studies 9 (2): 7-30. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48684186
    17. Goryakin, Yevgeniy, Lobstein, Tim, James, William Philip and Suhrcke, Marc. 2015. The impact of economic, political and social globalization on overweight and obesity in the 56 low and middle income countries. Social Science and Medicine 133: 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.030
    18. Ito, Harumi and Lee, Darin. 2005. Assessing the impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks on U.S. airline demand. Journal of Economics and Business 57(1): 75–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconbus.2004.06.003
    19. Jennings, Ralph. 2017a. Philippines Seeks to Improve Relations with US. Voice of America, accessed on March 2, 2023. https://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/us-philippines/4057554.html
    20. Jennings, Ralph. 2017b. Philippines Seeks to Improve Relations with US. Voice of America, accessed on March 12, 2023. https://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/us-philippines/4057554.html
    21. Jeong, Joonoh and Grix, Jonathan. 2023. An analysis of Japan’s soft power strategies through the prism of sports mega-events. Sport in Society 26 (10): 1756-1776. DOI: 10.1080/17430437.2023.2197398
    22. Kiet, Le Hoang and Tuyen, Nguyen Van. 2023. Vietnam’s Geopolitical Position with the United States in its strategy to prevent China’s Hegemonic Ambitions. Journal of Science and Technology - University of Danang 21 (8.1):63-69. https://jst-ud.vn/jst-ud/article/view/8630.
    23. Kiet, Le Hoang, Minh, Nguyen Anh and Hiep, Tran Xuan. 2024. The Origins Of The Russia–Ukraine Conflict: A Geopolitical Perspective. Journal of Science and Technology - University of Danang 22 (2): 26-31. https://jst-ud.vn/jst-ud/article/view/8781
    24. Lan, Ngo Thi Bich. 2018. The geopolitical role of Southeast Asia for the United States in the early 21st century. Can Tho University of Journal 54 (3): 209-215. DOI: 10.22144/ctu.jvn.2018.058
    25. Loan, Bui. 2017. China provides weapons aid to the Philippines. Great Solidarity Newspaper, accessed on March 28, 2023. https://daidoanket.vn/trung-quoc-vien-tro-vu-khi-cho-philippines-10084710.html
    26. Macaraig, Christine Elizabeth and Fenton, Adam James. 2021. Analyzing the Causes and Effects of the South China Sea Dispute. The Journal of Territorial and Maritime Studies 8 (2): 42-58. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48617340
    27. Magcamit, Michael. 2019. To feel is to believe: China, United States, and the emotional beliefs of Philippines’ Rodrigo Duterte. Political Science 73 (1): 6-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/00323187.2021.1967764
    28. Misalucha-Willoughby, Charmaine and Medillo, Robert Joseph. 2020. The Tragedy of Small Power Politics: The Philippines in the South China Sea. Bandung 7 (1): 3-23. https://doi.org/10.1163/21983534-00701002
    29. Paderon, Marissa Maricosa. 2022. Philippine-United States Trade Relations: Looking Back and a Way Forward. East – West Center, accessed on March 15, 2023. https://www.eastwestcenter.org/publications/philippine-united-states-trade-relations-looking-back-and-way-forward
    30. Putnam, Robert. 1988. Diplomacy And Domestic Politics - The Logic Of 2 - Level Games. International Organization 42 (3): 427-460. DOI:10.1017/S0020818300027697
    31. Pemmaraju, Sreenivasa Rao. 2016. The South China Sea Arbitration (The Philippines v. China): Assessment of the Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility. Chinese Journal of International Law 15 (2): 265-307. https://doi.org/10.1093/chinesejil/jmw019
    32. Peters, Michael. 2022. The emerging multipolar world order: A preliminary analysis. Educational Philosophy and Theory 55 (14): 1653-1663. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2022.2151896
    33. Phuong, Lam. 2021. US-Philippines relationship “broken mirror heals”. Vietnam National Defense Magazine, accessed on February 29, 2023. http://tapchiqptd.vn/vi/quoc-phong-quan-su-nuoc-ngoai/quan-he-my-philippines-guong-vo-lai-lanh/17784.html
    34. Rabena, Aaron Jed. 2017. Philippines-China Relations: A Deepening Partnership. Asia Pacific Pathway to Progress Foundation, accessed on March 29, 2023. https://appfi.ph/publications/commentaries/1311-philippines-china-relations-a-deepening-partnership
    35. Ranada, Pia. 2018. 5 ways Duterte made good on his pivot to China. Rappler, accessed on March 23, 2023. https://www.rappler.com/%20nation/217079-5-ways-duterte-made-good-on-pivot-china-xi-jinping/
    36. Schneider, Gerald. 2013. Peace through globalization and capitalism? Prospects of two liberal propositions. Journal of Peace Research 51(2): 173-183. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343313497739
    37. Sifton, Johns. 2020. US Revokes Visa of Philippines ‘Drug War’ Police Chief. Human Rights Watch, accessed on March 10, 2023. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/01/22/us-revokes-visa-philippines-drug-war-police-chief
    38. Sorensen, Georg. 2006. What Kind of World Order? The International System in the New Millennium. Cooperation and Conflict 41(4): 343-363. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010836706069601
    39. Stepanov, Alexey. 2022. US Policy towards Southeast Asia: from Barack Obama to Joe Biden. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences 92 (15): 1473–1478. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1019331622210183
    40. Southgate, Laura. 2019. China’s sovereignty violations in the East and South China Seas: How should Europe respond? European View 18 (2): 242-249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1781685819882863
    41. Tan, Nguyen Van and Trang, Nguyen Thi Anh. 2017. The Philippines in US foreign policy (1991-2014). Hanoi: Truth National Political Publishing House.
    42. Torio, Philamer and Doytch, Nadia. 2023. Understanding US-Philippines Bilateral Relations: Building a Strong Foundation for Economic Cooperation. SSRN of Journal. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4436822
    43. Tolentino, Elaine and Ham, Myungsik. (2015). The entrapment of asymmetry: the Philippines between the US and China. Bandung J of Global South 2 (20). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40728-015-0016-8
    44. U.S. Department of State. 2023. U.S. Relations With the Philippines. Home page of U.S. Department of State, accessed on February 10, 2023. https://www.state.gov/u-s-relations-with-the-philippines/
    45. United States Trade Representative. 2021. National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers in 2021. Home page of United States Trade Representative, accsessed on March 11, 2023. https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/files/reports/2021/2021NTE.pdf
    46. Van, Mai. 2016. The President of the Philippines visits China with an economic focus. Request for Information, accessed on March 25, 2023. https://www.rfi.fr/vi/chau-a/20161018-tong-thong-philippines-tham-trung-quoc-voi-trong-tam-kinh-te
    47. Velasco, Joseph Ching and Song, Weiqing. 2023. Nexus of Strong Presidentialism and Philippine Foreign Policy: The Case of the Duterte Presidency’s Hedging toward China. Pacific Focus Inha Journal of International Studies 38 (3): 349-377. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pafo.12239
    48. White House. 2006. The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. Home page of U.S. Department of State, accessed on February 18, 2023. https://2001-2009.state.gov/s/ct/rls/wh/71803.htm
    49. Winger, Gregory. 2023. Alliance Embeddedness: Rodrigo Duterte and the Resilience of the US–Philippine Alliance. Foreign Policy Analysis 17 (3). https://doi.org/10.1093/fpa/orab013.
    50. Yu, Liang. 2017. Sino-Philippine relations showing good momentum in all fields. Xinhuanet, accessed on March 27, 2023. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201711/15/c_136754233.htm
    51. Zhao, Xiaoyu. 2018. Why Obama’s Rebalance towards Asia-Pacific Was Unsuccessful? International Studies 55(2): 87-105. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020881718791040

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary Reviews

How to cite

Tran, H., Anh, Kiet, Binh, & Bao. (2024). The policy of the Philippines towards the US and China in a changing world order (2001-2021). Multidisciplinary Reviews, (| Accepted Articles). Retrieved from https://malque.pub/ojs/index.php/mr/article/view/3671
  • Article viewed - 37