• Abstract

    The most frequent mesenchymal tumor that affects the gastrointestinal system is now known to be the gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Though GISTs are a relatively new tumor form, the field's understanding of them has grown quickly. Still, there is a dearth of research on this illness in India, and the majority of treatment plans there are based on studies done on populations outside of the nation. Since the 1990s, a great deal of progress has been made in our knowledge of the GIST domain's lineage of origin. According to recent research, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells are the source of GISTs, which are thought to occur in 10-20 instances per million people annually. With an overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT in the intestinal Cajal cells, GISTs are the most prevalent malignant subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the digestive tract. GISTs can have a variety of morphologies, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, which makes diagnosis difficult. But new developments in molecular targeted therapy have transformed solid tumour oncology and provided exciting new avenues for treatment. In order to differentiate dedifferentiated GISTs from other gastrointestinal malignancies, this review paper will address current immunohistochemical markers and give an outline of the morphologic and molecular features of these tumours. It also emphasises the importance of GIST genetic testing, progressive surgical approaches, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for localised disorders, and metastatic condition-addressing methodologies. The article's major body explores the impact of imatinib therapy, the rarity of GISTs in paediatric patients, imaging methods for staging and monitoring, and the difficulties with anorectal GISTs. It highlights how crucial it is to pinpoint particular molecular subtypes in order to inform therapeutic choices for adjuvant and metastatic therapies.

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Raut, A., Meshram, S., Raut, P., & Thakre, A. (2024). Advancements and challenges in understanding gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A comprehensive review. Multidisciplinary Reviews, (| Accepted Articles). Retrieved from https://malque.pub/ojs/index.php/mr/article/view/3652
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