Neoplasm treatment is carried out mainly through surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, despite general progress in cancer therapy, effective treatment options and even healing are still insufficient for certain cancer patients. Anti-tumor immunotherapy fits this gap since it consists of the immune system manipulating to identify and destroy neoplastic cells. In this context, the present study aims to review the literature on anti-tumor immunotherapy in veterinary medicine, side effects, and other aspects considered relevant to the different methods. Besides, the evaluation of the response pattern presented and the cells and components involved were considered. For this purpose, the search sites Medline, Scielo, and Portal CAPES were used, using the following keywords: anti-tumor immunotherapy, antineoplastic antibodies, and anticancer vaccines, for the selection of scientific articles from the last ten years. Although immunotherapy acts differently from any other type of cancer treatment, its indication is related to the tumor’s characteristics and the treatment stage in which the patient is. The literature covers the study of different anti-tumor immunotherapy strategies focusing on application in humans; however, most of the tests and responses evaluated occur in other animal species. Thus, the potential for using anti-tumor immunotherapy in veterinary medicine is clear, to stimulate immune system responses against cancer cells, preventing tumor amplification and dissemination.