The review was conducted to assess the available scientific information on the role of beekeeping in improving the livelihood of the beekeeper and enhancing watershed rehabilitation. Honeybees and flowering plants have a well-developed system of interdependence. However, the rich biodiversity of Ethiopia is under serious threat from deforestation and land degradation, overexploitation, overgrazing, habitat loss, invasive species, and some water pollution. The underlying causes for these problems emanate from poverty, population growth, lack of alternative livelihoods, inadequate policy support, inappropriate investment, and inadequacy of law enforcement. More than 5 million beehives in Ethiopia have managed approximately 1.4-1.7 million farm households with 45,905 tons of honey production per year. Beekeeping is important as a strong incentive and the cheapest eco-friendly approach to promote conservation of natural ecosystems as an adjunct to conventional subsistence agriculture in the face of the growing human population and demand for land. Many countries introduced improved beekeeping as reforestation incentives, paying particular attention to plant flowering trees that provide nectar and pollen while generating income for local communities from bee products. The most serious constraint of the honey bee is the application of chemicals such as fungicides, pesticides, and herbicides, which hinder the productivity and production of honey bee colonies. Therefore, the focus should be given to those chemicals that do not harm honey bees, and the application should not match with flowering seasons to minimize the poisoning effect on the honey bee.