Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology <p><strong>Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology (ISSN 2318-1265)</strong> is an international peer-reviewed open-access journal devoted to publishing papers about Animal Biometeorology, Animal Behaviour and Animal Welfare, published quarterly online by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-content="" data-type="external">Malque Publishing</a></strong>.</p> <p><strong>International Indexing:</strong> Web of Science (ESCI), Scopus and SCImago Journal Rank, CAB International, Google Scholar, AGRIS, ASFA, Latindex, <a href="" target="_self">among others</a>. The first <em>Impact Factor </em>(Clarivate Analytics) is coming in 2023.</p> <p><strong>Agile and Efficient Peer-Review:</strong> manuscripts are peer-reviewed and a first decision is provided to authors approximately 20-25 days after submission; acceptance to publication is undertaken in 5-7 days (median values for papers published in this journal in the first half of 2022).</p> <p><strong>Open Access</strong> free for readers, with <a href="" target="_self">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a> paid by authors or their institutions. </p> <p><strong>Acceptance rate (first half of 2022):</strong> <strong>41% </strong></p> <div><strong>Become a Reviewer of JABB!</strong> This journal provides <em>Reviewer Recognition Certificate</em>.</div> Malque Publishing en-US Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2318-1265 Polymorphisms of the melatonin receptor 1A (<em>MTNR1A</em>) gene do not affect sexual activity, plasma testosterone concentrations or testicular characteristics of 8-month-old ram-lambs born in autumn <p>Thirty-nine autumn-born ram-lambs were used to study whether polymorphisms of the melatonin receptor 1A (<em>MTNR1A</em>) gene influence some reproductive parameters of Oct-born ram-lambs at 8 months of age. Animals were genotyped for their RsaI (CC, n=24; CT, n=6; TT, n=9) and MnlI (GG, n=27; GA, n=6; AA, n=6) allelic variants of the <em>MTNR1A</em> gene. Liveweight (LW) was recorded bi-weekly until Jun, and scrotal perimeter (SP) was recorded once per month. From mid-Jan, blood samples were collected weekly to measure plasma testosterone concentrations. In mid-Jun, individual serving-capacity tests were performed. Testicular ultrasonography was performed at the end of the experiment. The effects of the week and gene polymorphism on LW, scrotal perimeter, and plasma testosterone concentrations were evaluated statistically by the GLM for repeated measures procedure. LW, SP, and plasma testosterone concentrations were significantly (P&lt;0.001) affected by week, but neither of the polymorphisms of the melatonin receptor 1A (<em>MTNR1A</em>) gene affected these variables. In the serving tests, genotypes did not differ significantly in individual behaviors or the number of events (CC: 24.1±3.2, CT: 26.3±13.0, TT: 16.8±4.8, GG: 22.0±3.0, GA: 21.0±6.7, AA: 27.8±12.7). Testicular features assessed by ultrasonography did not differ significantly among genotypes. In conclusion, the polymorphisms of the melatonin receptor 1A (<em>MTNR1A</em>) gene did not have an effect on the reproductive characteristics of autumn-born ram lambs, based on serving capacity tests, testosterone secretion, and testicular measurements at 8 months of age.</p> José-Alfonso Abecia Adriana Casao Francisco Canto Maria Consuelo Mura Sebastiano Luridiana Melissa Carvajal-Serna Rosaura Pérez-Pe Vincenzo Carcangiu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 10 4 2240 2240 10.31893/jabb.22040 Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) from Essex Co., Virginia: monthly changes in abundance and richness <p>We analyzed the abundance and richness of velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) in Essex County, Virginia, USA. Also, to compare the species list in this study with the known diversity in the state of Virginia, we examined literature searches and collection inventories. Mutillidae specimens in Essex were sampled from March 26 to November 5, 1991, using 13 Malaise traps. The monthly abundance of each genus was then compared using Rayleigh and Mardia-Watson-Wheeler tests. Fieldwork yielded a total of 3302 specimens, distributed in 25 species, eight genera (<em>Dasymutilla</em> Ashmead, <em>Ephuta</em> Say, <em>Lomachaeta</em> Mickel, <em>Myrmosa</em> Latreille, <em>Photomorphus</em> Viereck,<em> Pseudomethoca</em> Ashmead,<em> Sphaeropthalma</em> Blake, and <em>Timulla</em> Ashmead), and three subfamilies (Myrmosinae, Mutillinae, and Sphaeropthalminae). The four most abundant genera were <em>Pseudomethoca</em> (789 specimens, four species), <em>Myrmosa</em> (778 specimens, one species), <em>Ephuta</em> (774 specimens, five species), <em>Sphaeropthalma</em> (662 specimens, one species). <em>Myrmosa unicolor</em> Say and <em>Sphaeropthalma pensylvanica </em>(Lepeletier) were the most abundant species, representing 44% of the collected specimens. The genera analyzed presented significant monthly abundance values, with maximum abundance values in June for <em>Sphaeropthalma</em>, July for <em>Timulla</em>, <em>Dasymutilla</em>, <em>Myrmosa</em>, and <em>Photomorphus</em>; August for <em>Ephuta</em>; and September for <em>Pseudomethoca</em>. Genera with similar patterns are <em>Timulla-Dasymutilla</em>, <em>Timulla-Photomorphus</em>, and <em>Dasymutilla</em>-<em>Photomorphus</em>. The 25 species recorded from Essex County in this study constitute 78.1% of the 32 species recorded from the state of Virginia. We concluded that the Mutillidae from Essex Co. displays large variations in abundance, with peaks of activity occurring from June to September. Although our study did not sample environmental variables, the monthly activity patterns observed are correlated with temperature patterns observed for Essex Co. in 1991. Finally, <em>Sphaerophthalma</em> (sic!) (<em>Photomorphus</em>) <em>rubroscutellatus</em> Bradley was recognized to be a junior synonym of <em>Photomorphus impar</em> (Melander).</p> Roberto Alejandro Cambra Pedro Reck Bartholomay Kevin Andrew Williams David Smith Yostin Jesús Añino Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 10 4 2238 2238 10.31893/jabb.22038 Methyl anthranilate as pig repellent: Effects on the feeding behavior and production performance <p>Preventing pigs such as wild pigs (<em>Sus scrofa</em>) from accessing the farm can be blocked by installing fences or repellent to make them feel reluctant to access the farm. Most wild pigs were captured to prevent crop damage and incidence of African swine fever (ASF). Still, there is a limit to capturing them due to the rapid population growth. A study was conducted using "To Nature" repellent with an active ingredient of Methyl anthranilate (MA) to assess the effectiveness of MA as a pig repellent and determine its effect on feeding behavior and production performance. A total of eight female pigs [(Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc] were randomly arranged and used in the experiment for five weeks. Each treatment was replicated four times, having one pig in every replication. The feeders' position with MA repellent was shifted weekly with a ratio of 0.25% and mixed with 10kg of feed. The number of approaches of pigs to the feeder was monitored daily using a full HD CCTV 5-megapixel camera. A significantly lower number of approaches, feed intake, and total time spent feeding in the feeding trough was recorded from the feeder with MA repellent mixed in the diet. Regression analysis revealed a positive relationship in the feeding behavior of pigs in the feeder mixed with MA repellent in the diet. Therefore, 0.25% MA repellent can be used as pig repellent without adverse effects on the production performance of growing pigs.</p> Keiven Mark B. Ampode Hong-Seok Mun Veasna Chem Il-Byung Chung Shad Mahfuz Muhammad Ammar Dilawar Young-Hwa Kim Chul-Ju Yang Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 10 4 2237 2237 10.31893/jabb.22037 Effects of decoction products of <em>Lavandula angustifolia</em>, <em>Laurus nobilis</em>, and <em>Artemisia herba-alba</em> on depression and anxiety behaviors in Wistar rats <p>Medicinal and aromatic plants have very substantial emotional effects on rats, which is part of the current study. Decoction products of three Moroccan plants (<em>Lavandula angustifolia L., Laurus nobilis L., and Artemisia herba-alba</em>) were used to be tested on Wistar rats in the laboratory. The goal was to check if they had an anti-depressant and/or anti-anxiety action on the animals' tests. Wistar Rats were born and bred in the pet store of the Faculty of Science, Kenitra. The anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects were assessed according to three animal models: Open Field, Elevated Plus-maze for anxiety, and the Forced Swimming animal model for depression. The results showed that drinking water containing plant extracts has anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects. Rats have overcome depression by reducing downtime during forced swimming. Concerning anti-anxiety, the open-field test showed an increase in the rat’s locomotor activity, which indicates unhesitating exploratory behavior in the form of confident movement through the number of visits to the central part and the total distance crossed. The anxiety reduction was also corroborated by the elevated Plus-maze test, where the rats displayed no aversion to open spaces on account of the prolonged time they spent in the open arms and platform of the raised cross maze. In light of the findings from the experiments conducted in the study, the decoction products of the three plants appear to be viable candidates for the treatment of depression and anxiety.</p> Kamal Elharas Mohammed Ouhssine Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 10 4 2239 2239 10.31893/jabb.22039 Polymorphisms of the melatonin receptor 1A (<em>MTNR1A</em>) gene affect sexual performance of Rasa Aragonesa rams without changing their social dominance <p>This study aimed to investigate whether a specific genotype of the <em>MTNR1A</em> gene influences social dominance and reproductive performance in rams. Thirty-one rams were genotyped for Rsal and Mnll polymorphism of the gene: CC (n=19), CT (n=5), and TT (n=7), and GG (n=20), GA (n=6), or AA (n=5), respectively. Maintenance (standing still, lying down, drinking, feeding, walking, or stereotyping) and social behavior (agonistic and antagonistic interactions among rams) were recorded by direct observations involving instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavior sampling. For each animal, his Index of Success (IS) and Displacement (ID) were calculated. One week after the social-behavioral observations, rams were tested in individual serving-capacity tests involving three ewes that were synchronized into estrus in a 15-m<sup>2</sup> pen for 20 min. The genotypes did not differ in the number of aggressions they performed (CC: 88.95±12.85; CT: 106.20±21.00; TT: 70.43±8.50; GG: 76.05±8.72; GA: 119.00±16.16; AA: 95.80±36.39) or received (CC:75.79±5.82; CT:92.40±8.68; TT: 86.14±15.05; GG: 79.25±6.58; GA: 86.83±11.51; AA: 79.80±12.74), and their active and passive behaviors were similar. The genotypes did not differ significantly in IS or ID, and the proportion of rams in each success category was similar among groups. For the Rsal and Mnll polymorphism, TT and GG rams were responsible for 54% and 56% of recorded sexual events (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05), respectively. Results of this study confirm that the best sexual performance of rams was among those that carried certain genotypes of the <em>MTNR1A</em> gene. Still, it was not correlated with differences in social dominance.</p> José-Alfonso Abecia Andrea Heredia Rosaura Pérez-Pe Adriana Casao Vincenzo Carcangiu Maria Consuelo Mura Genaro Miranda-de la Lama Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 10 4 2231 2231 10.31893/jabb.22031 Comprehension of the zinc chloride's ameliorative apoptotic and genotoxic effects on mice with cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity <p>Cadmium is a typical heavy metal quite dangerous to humans and animals. Zinc supplementation protects the biological system from Cd toxicity and alleviates Cd-induced toxicity. The present study was assessed to evaluate the preventive effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl<sub>2</sub>) on male mice with liver damage induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl<sub>2</sub>). Metals accumulation was quantified in the liver. Body weight, liver weight ratio, lipid peroxidation, caspase 3, and DNA damage were determined in the liver of male mice after receiving an intraperitoneal (IP) a single dose of CdCl<sub>2 </sub>at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg or/and ZnCl<sub>2 </sub>10 mg/kg during 21 days. The LD50 was 6.023 mg/kg for CdCl<sub>2</sub> and 89.05 mg/kg for ZnCl<sub>2</sub>. The results indicate that mice in control and Zn groups gained body weight at the end of the experiment, while other treated groups significantly decreased. The relative weight of the liver revealed a significant increase in experimental groups. In addition, an increase in malondialdehyde level, Metallothionein concentration, and caspase-3 level was detected in Cd and Zn groups alone or in combination. Strand breaks of DNA of hepatocytes showed a significant increase in tail length of groups treated with cadmium. Co-treatment with zinc reduced these parameters compared to those measured in cells treated with cadmium. The outcome of this study implied that cadmium chloride causes oxidative stress, DNA damage, and elevated apoptosis markers in mice livers at low and medium doses. By pinpointing the target organ involved, the study results have also added some understanding of the impacts of zinc chloride injection to ameliorate cadmium toxicity in a low dose at 10 mg/kg.</p> Enas Nihad Bayram Hanady S. Al-shmgani Nahla A. Al-Bakri Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-10-06 2022-10-06 10 4 2235 2235 10.31893/jabb.22035 Impacts of trace element supplementation on productive/reproductive postpartum performances of grazing dairy heifers from volcanic soils <p>This study has been designed to evaluate the effect of trace elements (TE) on the reproductive and productive performances of postpartum Holstein Friesian heifers, fed on pasture with origin on volcanic soils, poor in TE. Twenty-six heifers pregnant were divided into two groups: experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups (n=13, each group). For animals belonging to the EG, two intra-ruminal capsules with TE were administrated 60 days before partum, while in the CG, no boluses were administered. All animals' blood was collected weekly to assess progesterone levels by the ELFA technique for 11 weeks after partum. TE were evaluated on blood by AAS when the experience started, on the day of delivery, and after 60 days. Before calving, no statistical differences were observed between groups for the trace elements, although it has been noticed that heifers had deficiencies in Selenium, Copper, and Iodine. On the calving day and 60 days after, a statistical increase (p&lt;0.05) in serum Copper and Selenium was observed in the animals belonging to the EG. For the other TE, no statistical differences were observed. Concerning reproductive characteristics, the EG, at five weeks postpartum, 70% of the cows were cyclic, while in the CG in the same period, 33% of animals showed signs of ovarian activity. At the level of productive parameters, no differences were observed between groups. The results obtained by the present study allow concluding that, under our experimental conditions, the administration of trace elements, in addition to reducing postpartum anestrus, increases the quality of the corpus luteum in the postpartum period of heifers.</p> Helder Patrício Barcelos Nunes Alfredo Emílio Silveira de Borba Joaquim Fernando Moreira da Silva Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-10-04 2022-10-04 10 4 2236 2236 10.31893/jabb.22036 Environmental conditions and bee foraging on watermelon crops in Panama <p>Watermelon is a crop highly dependent on bees for pollination, and environmental conditions are some of the most important factors affecting bee foraging. In this study, we analyze the effect of environmental conditions on the behavior of the most common bees visiting flowers of watermelon crops in Panama. We recorded the number of visits, visit duration, and the corresponding environmental conditions during the visits. Environmental conditions affected the observed groups of bees differently: honey bee visit proportion was remarkably higher at low temperatures, solar radiation, wind speed, and high relative humidity, early in the morning when they made about 90% of their flower visits. The other observed bees showed a more homogenous behavior during the day, with peaks representing about 25-35% of the daily visits. Visit number showed a correlation with temperature for all the most common bees except <em>Augochloropsis </em>spp., with solar radiation for <em>A. mellifera</em> and<em> Lasioglossum</em> spp., with humidity for all except <em>Lasioglossum </em>spp., and with wind speed for all of the analyzed bees. Visit durations were remarkably longer in <em>N. perilampoides</em> early on the day. At the same time, the rest of the bees showed less pronounced duration peaks, reaching their maximum at intermediate values of environmental conditions. Visit duration on honeybees did not correlate with environmental factors, but it did for most other bees. Environmental conditions showed a strong effect on the bee foraging behavior, with each group of bees concentrating their activities in favorable conditions depending on their biology, establishing their daily foraging patterns.</p> Juan Carlos Di Trani Virginia Meléndez Ramírez Yostin Añino Anovel Barba Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 10 4 2234 2234 10.31893/jabb.22034 Anatomical, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms of thermoregulation in elephants <p>Elephants use different thermoregulatory mechanisms that depend on the anatomical and morphological characteristics of the species. The crevices and wrinkles of the skin enhance the water-retention capacity of the epidermis. The highly vascularized ear is another region of particular interest, as its movement and vasomotor changes promote heat dissipation. Generally, these mechanisms are modulated by the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center and by the peripheral response of animals. Nonetheless, elephants are currently exposed to alterations in their habitats, such as global warming and climatic changes, which challenge their homeothermy. This article aims to discuss the thermoregulation mechanisms of African (<em>Loxodonta africana</em>) and Asian (<em>Elephas maximus</em>) elephants from an anatomical, physiological, and behavioral basis. The practical implications of these elements will be analyzed to implement tools, such as infrared thermography, or environmental enrichment, as strategies to promote the thermal balance of elephants.</p> Adriana Domínguez-Oliva Marcelo Daniel Ghezzi Patricia Mora-Medina Ismael Hernández-Ávalos Joseline Jacome Andrea Castellón Isabel Falcón Fátima Reséndiz Nicole Romero Raúl Ponce Daniel Mota-Rojas Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 10 4 2233 2233 10.31893/jabb.22033 Critical aspects of legislation and their impact on the welfare of water buffaloes during transport <p>Transport is considered a stressful period for livestock that can cause economic and biological losses if inadequate handling procedures exist. Several manuals and guides include recommendations for common domestic species based on scientific evidence. Still, the legislative freedom of each country means that they are not mandatory worldwide, nor do they cover all species, such as the water buffalo (<em>Bubalus bubalis</em>). This review aims to analyze the legal strictures currently applicable to the transport of this species. Critical aspects of the legislation that address the pre-transport, transportation, and post-transport stages are discussed, focusing on Asian and Latin American countries and the European Union. Areas of opportunity to improve the norms and laws that impact public policies, civil aspects, and water buffalo welfare in production systems are elucidated.</p> Daniela Rodríguez-González Fabio Napolitano Isabel Guerrero Legarreta Patricia Mora-Medina Marcelo Daniel Ghezzi Nancy José-Pérez Adriana Domínguez-Oliva Daniel Mota-Rojas Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 10 4 2232 2232 10.31893/jabb.22032 Multiple pathways to dissipate body heat excess and the infrared thermography effectiveness <p>Not applicable.</p> João Batista Freire Souza-Junior João Paulo Araújo Fernandes de Queiroz Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 2022-11-23 2022-11-23 10 4 2222 2222 10.31893/jabb.22022