• Abstract

    The expression of emotions in animals is a source of information not very explored by researches. It is necessary to know what emotions animals experience and how these emotions are expressed to the point that we can identify them. Within this approach, the use of techniques to measure body changes in animals according to the type of emotion experienced is one of the following paths. The ear and tail positioning was described as body areas subject to changes caused by emotions in animals. However, the position of the ears and tail may vary between species when it comes to the emotional state and therefore, it is not possible to establish a pattern. It is necessary to evaluate each species individually and the results cannot be transmitted from one species to another.  In addition, animals demonstrate different facial expressions associated with pain. Changes in facial expression in animals may also be related to emotions.

  • References

    1. All PM, Terms J (2013) The tail movements of ungulates, canids and felids with particular reference to their causation and function as displays. BRILL Stable. 56:69–115. Acessed on December 30, 2018
    2. Amelia A, Macrae M, Makowska IJ, Macrae AM, Makowska IJ, Fraser D (2018) Initial evaluation of facial expressions and behaviours of harbour seal pups (Phoca vitulina) in response to tagging and microchipping. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:S0168159118302235
    3. Artelle KA, Dumouli, LK, Reimchen TE (2011) Behavioural responses of dogs to asymmetrical tail wagging of a robotic dog replica. Laterality. doi:10.1080/13576500903386700
    4. Barros J, Maria R, Pires L, Ambrósio LA, Oliveira A De, Trevisan G (2017) Expressão facial , vocalização e posturas anômalas em bovinos submetidos à eletroejaculação convencional. PubVet 11:1074-1187.
    5. Bellegarde LGA, Haskell MJ, Duvaux-ponter C, Weiss A, Boissy A, Erhard HW (2017) Face-based perception of emotions in dairy goats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2017.03.014
    6. Boissy A, Aubert A, Désiré L, Greiveldinger L, Delval E, Veissier I (2011) Cognitive sciences to relate ear postures to emotions in sheep. Animal Welfare 20:47–56.
    7. Briefer E F, Tettamanti F, Mcelligott A G (2015) Emotions in goats : mapping physiological , behavioural and vocal profiles. Animal Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.11.002
    8. Costa J H C, von Keyserlingk M A G, Weary D M (2016) Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health. Journal of Dairy Science. doi:10.3168/JDS.2015-10144
    9. Dalla Costa E, Minero M, Lebelt D, Stucke D, Canali E, Leach M C (2014) Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092281
    10. Flint H E, Coe J B, Serpell J A, Pearl D L, Niel L (2018) Identification of fear behaviors shown by puppies in response to non-social stimuli. Journal of Veterinary Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2018.07.012
    11. Forkman B, Boissy A, Meunier-Salaün M C, Canali E, Jones R B (2007) A critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses. Physiology & Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.03.016
    12. Fraser D, Duncan I J H, Edwards S A, Grandin T, Gregory N G, Guyonnet V, Hemsworth P H, Huertas S M, Huzzey J M, Mellor D J, Mench J A, Špinka M, Whay H R (2013) General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: The underlying science and its application. Veterinary Journal. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.06.028
    13. Futro A, Barclay D, Zhu Q, Baxter E M, D’Eath R B, Jack M, Talbot D (2018) Automatic early warning of tail biting in pigs: 3D cameras can detect lowered tail posture before an outbreak. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194524
    14. Gleerup K B, Andersen P H, Munksgaard L, Forkman B (2015) Pain evaluation in dairy cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2015.08.023
    15. Gómez Y, Bieler R, Hankele A K, Zähner M, Savary P, Hillmann E (2018) Evaluation of visible eye white and maximum eye temperature as non-invasive indicators of stress in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2017.10.001
    16. Grant C (2004) Behavioural responses of lambs to common painful husbandry procedures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.01.011
    17. Gu Jingqiu, Wang Zhihai, GAO Ronghua (2017) Cow behavior recognition based on image analysis and activities. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. doi:10.3965/j.ijabe.20171003.3080
    18. Halachmi I, Guarino M, Bewley J, Pastell M (2018) Smart Animal Agriculture: Application of Real-Time Sensors to Improve Animal Well-Being and Production. Annual Reviews Animal Bioscience. doi:10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-114851
    19. Jacobs J A, Siegford J M (2012) Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare. Journal of Dairy Science. doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4943
    20. Jimenez R E, Adcock S J J, Tucker C B (2019) Acute pain responses in dairy calves undergoing cornual nerve blocks with or without topical anesthetic. Journal of Dairy Science. doi:10.3168/jds.2018-15445
    21. Keating S C J, Thomas A A, Flecknell P A, Leach M C (2012) Evaluation of EMLA Cream for Preventing Pain during Tattooing of Rabbits: Changes in Physiological, Behavioural and Facial Expression Responses. PLoS One doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044437
    22. Kopaczka M, Ernst L, Heckelmann J, Schorn C, Tolba R, Merhof D (2018) Automatic Key Frame Extraction from Videos for Efficient Mouse Pain Scoring. 2018 5th Int. Conf. Signal Process. Integr. Networks, SPIN. doi:10.1109/SPIN.2018.8474046
    23. Kumar S, Pandey A, Sai Ram Satwik K, Kumar S, Singh S K, Singh A K, Mohan A (2018a) Deep learning framework for recognition of cattle using muzzle point image pattern. Measurement. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2017.10.064
    24. Kumar S, Singh S K, Abidi A I, Datta D, Sangaiah A K (2018b) Group Sparse Representation Approach for Recognition of Cattle on Muzzle Point Images. International Journal of Parallel Programming. doi:10.1007/s10766-017-0550-x
    25. Kumar S, Singh S K, Datta T, Gupta HP (2016a) A Fast Cattle Recognition System using Smart devices. Proceedings of the 24th ACM international conference on Multimedia. doi:10.1145/2964284.2973829
    26. Kumar S, Singh S K, Singh R S, Singh A K, Tiwari S (2017) Real-time recognition of cattle using animal biometrics. Journal of Real-Time Image Processing. doi:10.1007/s11554-016-0645-4
    27. Kumar S, Tiwari S, Singh S K (2016b) Face Recognition of Cattle: Can it be Done? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A: Physical Sciences. doi:10.1007/s40010-016-0264-2
    28. Lakestani N N, Donaldson M L, Waran N (2014) Interpretation of Dog Behavior by Children and Young Adults. Anthrozoos. doi:10.2752/175303714X13837396326413
    29. Lambert (Proctor) H S, Carder G (2017) Looking into the eyes of a All PM, Terms J (2013) The tail movements of ungulates, canids and felids with particular reference to their causation and function as displays. BRILL Stable. 56:69–115. Acessed on December 30, 2018
    30. Amelia A, Macrae M, Makowska IJ, Macrae AM, Makowska IJ, Fraser D (2018) Initial evaluation of facial expressions and behaviours of harbour seal pups (Phoca vitulina) in response to tagging and microchipping. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:S0168159118302235
    31. Artelle KA, Dumouli, LK, Reimchen TE (2011) Behavioural responses of dogs to asymmetrical tail wagging of a robotic dog replica. Laterality. doi:10.1080/13576500903386700
    32. Barros J, Maria R, Pires L, Ambrósio LA, Oliveira A De, Trevisan G (2017) Expressão facial , vocalização e posturas anômalas em bovinos submetidos à eletroejaculação convencional. PubVet 11:1074-1187.
    33. Bellegarde LGA, Haskell MJ, Duvaux-ponter C, Weiss A, Boissy A, Erhard HW (2017) Face-based perception of emotions in dairy goats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2017.03.014
    34. Boissy A, Aubert A, Désiré L, Greiveldinger L, Delval E, Veissier I (2011) Cognitive sciences to relate ear postures to emotions in sheep. Animal Welfare 20:47–56.
    35. Briefer E F, Tettamanti F, Mcelligott A G (2015) Emotions in goats : mapping physiological , behavioural and vocal profiles. Animal Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.11.002
    36. Costa J H C, von Keyserlingk M A G, Weary D M (2016) Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health. Journal of Dairy Science. doi:10.3168/JDS.2015-10144
    37. Dalla Costa E, Minero M, Lebelt D, Stucke D, Canali E, Leach M C (2014) Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092281
    38. Flint H E, Coe J B, Serpell J A, Pearl D L, Niel L (2018) Identification of fear behaviors shown by puppies in response to non-social stimuli. Journal of Veterinary Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2018.07.012
    39. Forkman B, Boissy A, Meunier-Salaün M C, Canali E, Jones R B (2007) A critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses. Physiology & Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.03.016
    40. Fraser D, Duncan I J H, Edwards S A, Grandin T, Gregory N G, Guyonnet V, Hemsworth P H, Huertas S M, Huzzey J M, Mellor D J, Mench J A, Špinka M, Whay H R (2013) General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: The underlying science and its application. Veterinary Journal. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.06.028
    41. Futro A, Barclay D, Zhu Q, Baxter E M, D’Eath R B, Jack M, Talbot D (2018) Automatic early warning of tail biting in pigs: 3D cameras can detect lowered tail posture before an outbreak. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194524
    42. Gleerup K B, Andersen P H, Munksgaard L, Forkman B (2015) Pain evaluation in dairy cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2015.08.023
    43. Gómez Y, Bieler R, Hankele A K, Zähner M, Savary P, Hillmann E (2018) Evaluation of visible eye white and maximum eye temperature as non-invasive indicators of stress in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2017.10.001
    44. Grant C (2004) Behavioural responses of lambs to common painful husbandry procedures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.01.011
    45. Gu Jingqiu, Wang Zhihai, GAO Ronghua (2017) Cow behavior recognition based on image analysis and activities. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. doi:10.3965/j.ijabe.20171003.3080
    46. Halachmi I, Guarino M, Bewley J, Pastell M (2018) Smart Animal Agriculture: Application of Real-Time Sensors to Improve Animal Well-Being and Production. Annual Reviews Animal Bioscience. doi:10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-114851
    47. Jacobs J A, Siegford J M (2012) Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare. Journal of Dairy Science. doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4943
    48. Jimenez R E, Adcock S J J, Tucker C B (2019) Acute pain responses in dairy calves undergoing cornual nerve blocks with or without topical anesthetic. Journal of Dairy Science. doi:10.3168/jds.2018-15445
    49. Keating S C J, Thomas A A, Flecknell P A, Leach M C (2012) Evaluation of EMLA Cream for Preventing Pain during Tattooing of Rabbits: Changes in Physiological, Behavioural and Facial Expression Responses. PLoS One doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044437
    50. Kopaczka M, Ernst L, Heckelmann J, Schorn C, Tolba R, Merhof D (2018) Automatic Key Frame Extraction from Videos for Efficient Mouse Pain Scoring. 2018 5th Int. Conf. Signal Process. Integr. Networks, SPIN. doi:10.1109/SPIN.2018.8474046
    51. Kumar S, Pandey A, Sai Ram Satwik K, Kumar S, Singh S K, Singh A K, Mohan A (2018a) Deep learning framework for recognition of cattle using muzzle point image pattern. Measurement. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2017.10.064
    52. Kumar S, Singh S K, Abidi A I, Datta D, Sangaiah A K (2018b) Group Sparse Representation Approach for Recognition of Cattle on Muzzle Point Images. International Journal of Parallel Programming. doi:10.1007/s10766-017-0550-x
    53. Kumar S, Singh S K, Datta T, Gupta HP (2016a) A Fast Cattle Recognition System using Smart devices. Proceedings of the 24th ACM international conference on Multimedia. doi:10.1145/2964284.2973829
    54. Kumar S, Singh S K, Singh R S, Singh A K, Tiwari S (2017) Real-time recognition of cattle using animal biometrics. Journal of Real-Time Image Processing. doi:10.1007/s11554-016-0645-4
    55. Kumar S, Tiwari S, Singh S K (2016b) Face Recognition of Cattle: Can it be Done? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A: Physical Sciences. doi:10.1007/s40010-016-0264-2
    56. Lakestani N N, Donaldson M L, Waran N (2014) Interpretation of Dog Behavior by Children and Young Adults. Anthrozoos. doi:10.2752/175303714X13837396326413
    57. Lambert (Proctor) H S, Carder G (2017) Looking into the eyes of a cow: Can eye whites be used as a measure of emotional state? Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.11.005
    58. Lambert H, Carder G (2019) Positive and negative emotions in dairy cows: Can ear postures be used as a measure? Behaviour Processes. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.007
    59. Langford D J, Bailey A L, Chanda M L, Clarke S E, Drummond T E, Echols S, Glick S, Ingrao J, Klassen-Ross T, Lacroix-Fralish M L, Matsumiya L, Sorge R E, Sotocinal S G, Tabaka J M, Wong D, Van Den Maagdenberg A M J M, Ferrari M D, Craig K D, Mogil J S (2010) Coding of facial expressions of pain in the laboratory mouse. Nature Methods. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1455
    60. Li Z, Shen S, Ge C, Li X (2019) Cow Individual Identification Based on Convolutional Neural Network. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Algorithms, Computing and Artificial Intelligence. doi:10.1145/3302425.3302460
    61. Lu Y, Mahmoud M, Robinson P (2017) Estimating sheep pain level using facial action unit detection. Biometrics. doi:10.1109/FG.2017.56
    62. McLennan K M, Rebelo C J B, Corke M J, Holmes M A, Leach M C, Constantino-Casas F (2016) Development of a facial expression scale using footrot and mastitis as models of pain in sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.01.007
    63. Meunier B, Pradel P, Sloth K H, Cirié C, Delval E, Mialon M M, Veissier I (2017) Image analysis to refine measurements of dairy cow behaviour from a real-time location system. Biosystems Engineering doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.08.019
    64. Müller B R (2015) Dor em bovinos na marcação a ferro quente: expressão facial, outros indicadores comportamentais e fisiológicos e a percepção dos produtores. Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Paraná.
    65. Norton T, Berckmans D (2017) Developing precision livestock farming tools for precision dairy farming. Animal Frontiers. doi:10.2527/af.2017.0104
    66. Oliveira D De, Keeling L J (2018) Routine activities and emotion in the life of dairy cows : Integrating body language into an affective state framework. Plos One. doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/9JVR6
    67. Paul E S, Harding E J, Mendl M (2005) Measuring emotional processes in animals: The utility of a cognitive approach. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. Rev. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.01.002
    68. Paul E S, Mendl M T (2018) Animal emotion: Descriptive and prescriptive definitions and their implications for a comparative perspective. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2018.01.008
    69. Proctor H (2012) Animal sentience: Where are we and where are we heading? Animals. doi:10.3390/ani2040628
    70. Proctor H S, Carder G (2015) Measuring positive emotions in cows: Do visible eye whites tell us anything? Physiology & Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.04.011
    71. Proctor H S, Carder G (2014) Can ear postures reliably measure the positive emotional state of cows? Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2014.09.015
    72. Quaranta A, Siniscalchi M, Vallortigara G (2007) Asymmetric tail-wagging responses by dogs to different emotive stimuli. Current Biology. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.02.008
    73. Reefmann N, Bütikofer Kaszàs F, Wechsler B, Gygax L (2009a) Ear and tail postures as indicators of emotional valence in sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2009.02.013
    74. Reefmann N, Wechsler B, Gygax L (2009b) Behavioural and physiological assessment of positive and negative emotion in sheep. Animal Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.06.015
    75. Reimert I, Bolhuis J E, Kemp B, Rodenburg TB (2013) Indicators of positive and negative emotions and emotional contagion in pigs. Physiology & Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.11.002
    76. Reimert I, Fong S, Rodenburg T B, Bolhuis J E (2017) Emotional states and emotional contagion in pigs after exposure to a positive and negative treatment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2017.03.009
    77. Sandem A I, Braastad B O (2005) Effects of cow-calf separation on visible eye white and behaviour in dairy cows - A brief report. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2005.04.011
    78. Sandem A I, Braastad B O, Bakken M (2006) Behaviour and percentage eye-white in cows waiting to be fed concentrate-A brief report. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2005.08.003
    79. Sandem A I, Braastad B O, Bøe K E (2002) Eye white may indicate emotional state on a frustration-contentedness axis in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00029-1
    80. Sandem A I, Janczak A M, Braastad B O (2004) A short note on effects of exposure to a novel stimulus (umbrella) on behaviour and percentage of eye-white in cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.06.011
    81. Siniscalch M, Lusito R, Vallortigara G, Quaranta A (2013) Seeing left- or right-asymmetric tail wagging produces different emotional responses in dogs. Current Biology. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.027
    82. Stellato A C, Flint H E, Widowski T M, Serpell J A, Niel L (2017) Assessment of fear-related behaviours displayed by companion dogs (Canis familiaris) in response to social and non-social stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.12.007
    83. Tamioso P R, Maiolino Molento C F, Boivin X, Chandèze H, Andanson S, Delval É, Hazard D, da Silva G P, Taconeli C A, Boissy A (2018) Inducing positive emotions: Behavioural and cardiac responses to human and brushing in ewes selected for high vs low social reactivity. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2018.08.001
    84. Tate A J, Fischer H, Leigh A E, Kendrick K M (2006) Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1937
    85. Van Hertem T, Rooijakkers L, Berckmans D, Peña Fernández A, Norton T, Berckmans D, Vranken E (2017) Appropriate data visualisation is key to Precision Livestock Farming acceptance. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. doi:10.1016/j.compag.2017.04.003
    86. Wallgren T, Larsen A, Gunnarsson S (2019) Tail Posture as an Indicator of Tail Biting in Undocked Finishing Pigs. Animals. doi:10.3390/ani9010018
    87. Wemelsfelder F, Hunter T E A, Mendl M T, Lawrence A B (2001) Assessing the “whole animal”: A free choice profiling approach. Animal Behaviour. doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1741

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Malque Publishing

How to cite

Machado, M., & da Silva, I. J. O. (2019). Body expressions of emotions: does animals have it?. Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.31893/jabb.20001
  • Article viewed - 34
  • PDF downloaded - 14