• Abstract

    This study aimed to evaluate the thermal response of the eyelids and lacrimal gland of the left eye (LETG) through infrared thermography (IRT), cardiorespiratory parameters, and their association with nociception and pain in bitches undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy (OVH) anesthetized with isoflurane and epidural analgesia. Twenty-one healthy bitches of different breeds were randomized into three groups receiving epidural blocks: GL (n=7), lidocaine (2 mg Kg-1); GLF (n=7), lidocaine (2 mg Kg-1) and fentanyl (3 µg Kg-1); and GLM (n=7), lidocaine (2 mg Kg-1) with morphine (0.1 mg Kg-1). IRT and cardiorespiratory parameters were evaluated at baseline (Ebasal), thirty minutes before anesthetic premedication, and at different surgical events: first incision (EInc), ligature and section of the left (ELoV), and right (ERoV) ovarian pedicle, ligature, and re-section of the cervix (EUt), and skin suture (ESut). The assessment of acute pain in the immediate post-operative period was registered at E1h, E2h, and E3h using IRT, the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analogic Scale (DIVAS), and the University of Melbourne Pain Scale (UMPS) scales. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in the lower eyelid surface temperature (LELT) during EInc for GL (32.9°C ± 0.62), in comparison to GLF (34.2°C ± 0.62) and GLM (35.3°C ± 0.62) (P = 0.006). Regarding LETG, a significant increase (P = 0.03) in the IRT of Ebasal (36.8°C ± 0.63) and EInc (36.1°C ± 0.63) for GLM was observed in comparison to the thermographic values for both perioperative events and groups. The GLM showed a significant decrease in IRT values of ERoV at E3h in the upper and lower eyelids (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). A progressive and significant reduction of the IRT values of LETG was also recorded in GLM, with differences in ERoV (35.2 °C ± 0.63) (P = 0.02) and E3h (35.3 °C ± 0.63) (P = 0.01). The cardiovascular parameters (SAP, DAP, and MAP) did not differ between treatments, but in GL, there was a significant difference (P = 0.01) during EInc and ESut, compared to Ebasal. In the body temperature, EInc and ESut gradually decreased in all treatment groups (P = 0.01). In conclusion, hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory stability was associated with IRT readings and the absence of nociception. Changes in superficial temperature in the immediate post-operative period were lessened using isoflurane and epidural analgesia of lidocaine alone or in combination with pure opioids. These findings were clinically validated to the DIVAS and UMPS acute pain assessment scales.

  • References

    1. Aarnes TK, Bednarski RM, Lerche P, Hubbell JAE (2017) Effect of pre-warming on perioperative hypothermia and anesthetic recovery in small breed dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne 58:175–179.
    2. Abelson AL, Armitage-Chan E, Lindsey JC, Wetmore LA (2011) A comparison of epidural morphine with low dose bupivacaine versus epidural morphine alone on motor and respiratory function in dogs following splenectomy. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 38:213–223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2011.00601.x
    3. Adami C, Gendron K (2017) What is the evidence? The issue of verifying correct needle position during epidural anaesthesia in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 44:212–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2016.03.003
    4. Arora S, Kulkarni A, Bhargava A (2015) Attenuation of hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation using intravenous clonidine. Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 31:110. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9185.150559
    5. Bartolomé E, Azcona F, Cañete-Aranda M, Perdomo-González DI, Ribes-Pons J, Terán EM (2019) Testing eye temperature assessed with infrared thermography to evaluate stress in meat goats raised in a semi-intensive farming system: a pilot study. Archives Animal Breeding 62:199–204. https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-62-199-2019
    6. Berry SH (2015) Analgesia in the Perioperative Period. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 45:1013–1027.
    7. Boselli E, Daniela-Ionescu M, Bégou G, Bouvet L, Dabouz R, Magnin C, Allaouchiche B (2013) Prospective observational study of the non-invasive assessment of immediate postoperative pain using the analgesia/nociception index (ANI). British Journal of Anaesthesia 111:453–459. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aet110
    8. Bosmans T, Piron K, Oosterlinck M, Piron K, Oosterlinck M, Gasthuys F, Duchateau L, Waelbers T, Samoy Y, Van Vynckt D, Polis I (2012) Comparison of analgesic efficacy of epidural methadone or ropivacaine/methadone with or without pre-operative oral tepoxalin in dogs undergoing tuberositas tibiae advancement surgery. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 39:618–627. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2012.00744.x
    9. Branson KR (2007) Injectable and alternative anesthniques. In: Traquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, Grimm KA (eds) Lumbs & Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, 5th edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK, pp 273–299.
    10. Bruells CS, Rossaint R (2011) Physiology of gas exchange during anaesthesia. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 28:570–579.
    11. Casas-Alvarado A, Mota-Rojas D, Hernández-Ávalos I, Mora-Medina P, Olmos-Hernández A, Verduzco-Mendoza A, Reyes-Sotelo B, Martínez-Burnes J (2020) Advances in infrared thermography: Surgical aspects, vascular changes, and pain monitoring in veterinary medicine. Journal of Thermal Biology 92:102664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2020.102664
    12. Charan J, Biswas T (2013) How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research? Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 35:121. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.116232
    13. Childs C (2018) Body temperature and clinical thermometry. In: Romanovsky AA (ed) Thermoregulation: From Basic Neuroscience to Clinical Neurology, Part II, 3 edn. Elsevier, UK, pp 467–482.
    14. Chohan AS, Davidow EB (2017) Clinical Pharmacology and Administration of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Blood Component Solutions. In: Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp 386–413.
    15. Czaplik M, Hochhausen N, Dohmeier H, Pereira CB, Rossaint R (2017) Development of a "Thermal-Associated Pain Index" score using infrared-thermography for objective pain assessment. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS 3831–3834. https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2017.8037692
    16. Dent BT, Aarnes TK, Wavreille VA, Lakritz J, Lerche P, KuKanich B, Riccó Pereira CH, Bednarski RM (2019) Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Effects of Oral Transmucosal and Intravenous Administration of Dexmedetomidine in Dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 80:969–975.
    17. Desborough JP (2000) The stress response to trauma and surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 85:109–117. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/85.1.109
    18. Domínguez -Oliva A, Casas- Alvarado A, Miranda- Cortes AE, Hernández- Avalos I (2021) Clinical pharmacology of tramadol and tapentadol, and their therapeutic efficacy in different models of acute and chronic pain in dogs and cats. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 8:404. https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2021.h529
    19. Doyle DJ, Goyal A, Bansal P, Garmon EH (2020) American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification (ASA Class).
    20. Elsharkawy H, Sonny A, Chin K (2017) Localization of epidural space: A review of available technologies. Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 33:16. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9185.202184
    21. Epstein ME, Rodan I, Griffenhagen G, Kadrlik J, Petty MC, Robertson SA, Simpson W (2015) 2015 AAHA/AAFP Pain Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17:251–272. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X15572062
    22. Esteves Trindade PH, de Camargo Ferraz G, Pereira Lima ML, de Camargo Ferraz G, Pereira Lima ML, Negrão JA, Paranhos da Costa MJR (2019) Eye Surface Temperature as a Potential Indicator of Physical Fitness in Ranch Horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 75:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2018.11.015
    23. Fazio E, Medica P, Cravana C, Pupillo A, Ferlazzo A (2015) Effects of ovariohysterectomy in dogs and cats on adrenocortical, haematological and behavioural parameters. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae 43:1–8.
    24. Finnerty CC, Mabvuure NT, Ali A, Kozar RA, Herndon DN (2013) The Surgically Induced Stress Response. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 37:21S-29S. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607113496117
    25. Fischer HBJ, Pinnock CA (2004) Fundamentals of Regional Anaesthesia, 1° ed. University Press, UK.
    26. Garcia-Pereira F (2018) Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in small animal practice: An update. The Veterinary Journal 242:24–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2018.09.007
    27. Giannoudis P V., Dinopoulos H, Chalidis B, Hall GM (2006) Surgical stress response. Injury 37:S3–S9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1383(07)70005-0
    28. Gomez de Segura IA, Menafro A, García-Fernández P, Murillo S, Parodi EM (2009) Analgesic and motor-blocking action of epidurally administered levobupivacaine or bupivacaine in the conscious dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 36:485–494. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2009.00469.x
    29. Gómez-Prado J, Pereira AMF, Wang D, Villanueva-García D, Domínguez-Oliva A, Mora-Medina P, Hernández-Avalos I, Martínez-Burnes J, Casas-Alvarado A, Olmos-Hernández A, Ramírez-Necoechea R, Verduzco-Mendoza A, Hernández A, Torres F and Mota-Rojas D (2022) Thermoregulation mechanisms and perspectives for validating thermal windows in pigs with hypothermia and hyperthermia: An overview. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 9:1023294. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.1023294
    30. Grint NJ, Burford J, Dugdale AHA (2009) Does pethidine affect the cardiovascular and sedative effects of dexmedetomidine in dogs? Journal of Small Animal Practice 50:62–66. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00670.x
    31. Grossbard BP, Loughin CA, Marino DJ, Marino LJ, Sackman J, Umbaugh SE, Solt PS, Afruz J, Leando P, Lesser ML, Akerman M (2014) Medical infrared imaging (Thermography) of Type I thoracolumbar disk disease in chondrodystrophic dogs. Veterinary Surgery 43:869–876. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2014.12239.x
    32. Hermeto LC, Rossi R de, Bicudo N de A, Assis KT, Escobar LL, Camargo PSde (2017) The effect of epidurally administered dexamethasone with lignocaine for post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. A dose-response study. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira 32:307–318. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020170040000008
    33. Hernández-Avalos I, Flores-Gasca E, Mota-Rojas D, Casas-Alvarado A, Miranda-Cortés AE, Domínguez-Oliva A (2021a) Neurobiology of anesthetic-surgical stress and induced behavioral changes in dogs and cats: A review. Veterinary World 14:393–404.
    34. Hernandez-Avalos I, Mota-Rojas D, Mora-Medina P, Martínez-Burnes J, Casas Alvarado A, Verduzco-Mendoza A, Lezama-García K, Olmos-Hernandez A (2019) Review of different methods used for clinical recognition and assessment of pain in dogs and cats. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine 7:43–54.
    35. Hernández-Avalos I, Valverde A, Antonio Ibancovichi-Camarillo J, Sánchez-Aparicio P, Recillas-Morales S, Rodríguez-Velázquez D, Osorio-Avalos J, Armando Magdaleno-Torres L, Chavez-Monteagudo J, Manuel Acevedo-Arcique C (2021b) Clinical use of the parasympathetic tone activity index as a measurement of postoperative analgaesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Journal of Veterinary Research 65:117–123. https://doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0004
    36. Höglund OV, Lövebrant J, Olsson U, Höglund K (2016) Blood pressure and heart rate during ovariohysterectomy in pyometra and control dogs: a preliminary investigation. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 58:80. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-016-0263-y
    37. Huggins J, Rakobowchuk M (2019) Utility of lacrimal caruncle infrared thermography when monitoring alterations in autonomic activity in healthy humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology 119:531–538. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-4041-6
    38. Iff I, Moens Y, Schatzmann U (2007) Use of pressure waves to confirm the correct placement of epidural needles in dogs. Veterinary Record 161:22–25. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.161.1.22
    39. Imagawa VH, Fantoni DT, Tatarunas AC, Mastrocinque S, Almeida TF, Ferreira F, Posso IP (2011) The use of different doses of metamizol for post-operative analgesia in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 38:385–393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2011.00617.x
    40. Johnson C (2016) Research tools for the measurement of pain and nociception. Animals 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6110071
    41. Jones R. (2001) Epidural Analgesia in the Dog and Cat. The Veterinary Journal 161:123–131. https://doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.2000.0528
    42. Küls N, Blissitt KJ, Shaw DJ, Schöffmann G, Clutton RE (2017) Thermography as an early predictive measurement for evaluating epidural and femoral–sciatic block success in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 44:1198–1207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2016.11.009
    43. Lai Carlo AP (2015) Stress Response to Surgery, Anesthetics Role and Impact on Cognition. Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research 06: https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6148.1000539
    44. Lamont LA (2008) Multimodal Pain Management in Veterinary Medicine: The Physiologic Basis of Pharmacologic Therapies. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 38:1173–1186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.06.005
    45. Lezama-García, K.; Martínez-Burnes, J.; Marcet-Rius, M.; Gazzano, A.; Olmos-Hernández, A.; Mora-Medina, P.; Domínguez-Oliva, A.; Pereira, A.M.F.; HernándezÁvalos, I.; Baqueiro-Espinosa, U. et al (2022) Is theWeight of the Newborn Puppy Related to Its Thermal Balance? Animals 12:3536. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12243536
    46. Loughin CA, Marino DJ (2007) Evaluation of thermographic imaging of the limbs of healthy dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 68:1064–1069. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.68.10.1064
    47. Lush J, Ijichi C (2018) A preliminary investigation into personality and pain in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 24:62–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2018.01.005
    48. Mansour C, El Hachem N, Jamous P, Saade G, Boselli E, Allaouchiche B, Bonnet JM, Junot S, Chaaya R (2020) Performance of the Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) index to assess the intraoperative nociception using different premedication drugs in anaesthetised dogs. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine 8:49–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/23144599.2020.1783090
    49. Mansour C, Merlin T, Bonnet-Garin J-M, Chaaya R, Mocci R, Ruiz CC, Allaouchiche B, Boselli E, Junot S (2017) Evaluation of the Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) index to assess the analgesia/nociception balance in anaesthetised dogs. Research in Veterinary Science 115:271–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.05.009
    50. Mastrocinque S, Fantoni DT (2003) A comparison of pre-operative tramadol and morphine for the control of early postoperative pain in canine ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 30:220–228. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-2995.2003.00090.x
    51. Matičić D, Stejskal M, Pećin M, Kreszinger M, Pirkić B, Vnuk D, Smolec O, Rumenjak V (2010) Correlation of pain assessment parameters in dogs with cranial cruciate surgery. Veterinarski Arhiv 80:597–609
    52. McMillan FD (2016) The psychobiology of social pain: Evidence for a neurocognitive overlap with physical pain and welfare implications for social animals with special attention to the domestic dog ( Canis familiaris ). Physiology & Behavior 167:154–171.
    53. McQueen EK, Urban SE, McQueen MT (2017) Equine Performance and Autonomic Nervous System Improvement After Joint Manipulation: A Case Study. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 56:80–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2017.04.012
    54. Morgaz J, Navarrete R, Muñoz-Rascón P, Domínguez JM, Fernández-Sarmiento JA, Gómez-Villamandos RJ, Granados MM (2013) Postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, buprenorphine and tramadol in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Research in Veterinary Science 95:278–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.03.003
    55. Morrison SF, Nakamura K (2011) Central neural pathways for thermoregulation. Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition) 16:74–104. https://doi.org/10.2741/3677
    56. Morrison SF, Nakamura K, Madden CJ (2008) Central control of thermogenesis in mammals. Experimental Physiology 93:773–797. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2007.041848
    57. Mota-Rojas D, Pereira MFA, Wang D, Martínez-Burnes J, Ghezzi M, Hernández-Ávalos I, Lendez P, Mora-Medina P, Casas A, Olmos-Hernández A, Domínguez A, Bertoni A, de Mira Geraldo A (2021a) Clinical applications and factors involved in validating thermal windows in large rumiants to assess health and productivity. Animals 11:2247
    58. Mota Rojas D, Miranda- Cortés A, Casas- Alvarado A, Mora-Medina P, Boscato-Funes L, Hernández- Ávalos I (2021b) Neurobiología y modulación de la hipertermia inducida por estrés agudo y fiebre en los animales. Abanico Veterinario 11. https://doi.org/10.21929/abavet2021.11
    59. Mota-Rojas D, Mariti C, Zdeinert A, Riggio G, Mora-Medina P, del Mar Reyes A, Gazzano A, Domínguez-Oliva A, Lezama-García K, José-Pérez N, Hernández-Ávalos I (2021c) Anthropomorphism and its adverse effects on the distress and welfare of companion animals. Animals 11:3263.
    60. Mota-Rojas D, Titto CG, Orihuela A, Martínez-Burnes J, Gómez-Prado J, Torres-Bernal F, Flores-Padilla K, Carvajal-de la Fuente V, Wang D (2021d) Physiological and behavioral mechanisms of thermoregulation in mammals. Animals 11:1733.
    61. Mota-Rojas D, Titto CG, de Mira Geraldo A, Martínez-Burnes J, Gómez J, Hernández-Ávalos I, Casas A, Domínguez A, José N, Bertoni A, Reyes B, Pereira AMF (2021e) Efficacy and function of feathers, hair, and glabrous skin in the thermoregulation strategies of domestic animals. Animals 11:3472.
    62. Mota-Rojas D, Wang D, Titto CG, Gómez-Prado J, Carvajal-De la Fuente V, Ghezzi M, Boscato-Funes L, Barrios-García H, Torres-Bernal F, Casas-Alvarado A, Martínez-Burnes J (2021f) Pathophysiology of fever and application of infrared thermography (IRT) in the detection of sick domestic animals: Recent advances. Animals 11:2316.
    63. Mota-Rojas D, Napolitano F, Braghieri A, et al (2021g) Thermal Biology in River Buffalo in the Humid Tropics: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses Assessed by Infrared Thermography. Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 9:2103. http://dx.doi.org/10.31893/jabb.21003
    64. Mota-Rojas D, Wang D, Titto CG, et al (2022a) Neonatal infrared thermography images in the hypothermic ruminant model: Anatomical-morphological-physiological aspects and mechanisms for thermoregulation. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 9:963205. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.963205
    65. Mota-Rojas D, Pereira AMF, Martínez-Burnes J, Domínguez-Oliva A, Mora-Medina P, Casas-Alvarado A, Rios-Sandoval J, Geraldo AdM, Wang D (2022b) Thermal Imaging to Assess the Health Status in Wildlife Animals under Human Care: Limitations and Perspectives. Animals 12: 3558. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12243558
    66. Mota-Rojas D, Martínez-Burnes J, Casas-Alvarado A, Gómez-Prado J, Hernández-Ávalos I, Domínguez-Oliva A, Lezama-García K, Jacome-Romero J, Rodríguez-González D, Pereira AMF (2022c) Clinical Usefulness of Infrared Thermography to Detect Sick Animals: Frequent and Current Cases. CABI Reviews 22:1–27. https://doi.org/10.1079/cabireviews202217040
    67. Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW (2018) A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary World 1725–1735. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2018.1725-1735
    68. Napolitano F, Bragaglio A, Braghieri A, El-Aziz AHA, Titto CG, Villanueva-García D, Mora-Medina P, Pereira AMF, Hernández-Avalos I, José-Pérez N, Casas-Alvarado A, Lezama-García K, Domínguez-Oliva A, Rodríguez-González D, Bertoni A, Mota-Rojas D (2023) The effect of birth weight and time of day on the thermal response of newborn water buffalo calves. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 10:1084092.
    69. Otero PE, Verdier N, Ceballos MR, Tarragona L, Flores M, Portela DA (2014) The use of electrical stimulation to guide epidural and intrathecal needle advancement at the L5-L6 intervertebral space in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 41:543–547. https://doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12137
    70. Paranzini CS, Sousa AK, Cardoso GS, Perencin FM, Trautwein LGC, Bracarense APFRL, Martins MIM (2018) Effects of chemical castration using 20% CaCl 2 with 0.5% DMSO in tomcats: Evaluation of inflammatory reaction by infrared thermography and effectiveness of treatment. Theriogenology 106:253–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.10.013
    71. Pascoe PJ (2000) Opioid Analgesics. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 30:757–772. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-5616(08)70005-6
    72. Perkowski SZ, Oyama MA (2017) Pathophysiology and Anesthetic Management of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. In: Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp 496–510.
    73. Prkachin KM, Solomon PE (2008) The structure, reliability and validity of pain expression: Evidence from patients with shoulder pain. Pain 139:267–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2008.04.010
    74. Redaelli V, Papa S, Marsella G, Grignaschi G, Bosi A, Ludwig N, Luzi F, Vismara I, Rimondo S, Veglianese P, Tepteva S, Mazzola S, Zerbi P, Porcu L, Roughan JV, Parati G, Calvillo L (2019) A refinement approach in a mouse model of rehabilitation research. Analgesia strategy, reduction approach and infrared thermography in spinal cord injury. PLOS ONE 14:e0224337. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224337
    75. Reid K, Rogers CW, Gronqvist G, Gee EK, Bolwell CF (2017) Anxiety and pain in horses measured by heart rate variability and behavior. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 22:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2017.09.002
    76. Repac J, Alvarez LX, Lamb K, Gillette RL (2020) Evaluation of Thermographic Imaging in Canine Hindlimb Muscles After 6 Min of Walking—A Pilot Study. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00224
    77. Robinson EB (2014) Thermoregulation. In: Klein BG (ed) Textbook of Veterinary Physiology. 5th edn, Elsevier, United States, pp 559–557.
    78. Saberi Afshar F, Shekarian M, Baniadam A, Avizeh R, Najafzadeh H, Pourmehdi M (2017) Comparison of different tools for pain assessment following ovariohysterectomy in bitches. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 11:255–265.
    79. Saeki K, Kutara K, Iwata E, Miyabe M, Shimizu Y, Wada Y, Ohnishi A, Matsuda A, Miyama TS, Asanuma T (2021) Noninvasive Thermographic Photographing as an Assessment of the State of Discomfort in a Dog Receiving Radiation Therapy. Animals 11:2496. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092496
    80. Schaefer AL, Cook N, Tessaro SV, Deregt D, Desroches G, Dubeski PL, Tong AKW, Godson DL (2004) Early detection and prediction of infection using infrared thermography. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84:73–80. https://doi.org/10.4141/A02-104
    81. Seixas A, Ammer K (2019) Utility of infrared thermography when monitoring autonomic activity. European Journal of Applied Physiology 119:1455–1457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04120-x
    82. Sherwin CM, Christiansen SB, Duncan IJ, Erhard HW, Lay DC, Mench JA, O'Connor CE, Petherick JC (2003) Guidelines for the ethical use of animals in applied ethology studies. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 81:291–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00288-5
    83. Steagall PVM (2017) An Update on Drugs Used for Lumbosacral Epidural Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 4:. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2017.00068
    84. Stephenson R (2014) Control neuronal y hormonal de la volemia y la presión arterial. In: Klein BG (ed) Cuningham´s Textbook of Veterinary Physiology, 5th edn, Elsevier, United States, pp 243–251.
    85. Stewart M, Stookey JM, Stafford KJ, Tucker CB, Rogers AR, Dowling SK, Verkerk GA, Schaefer AL, Webster JR (2009) Effects of local anesthetic and a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug on pain responses of dairy calves to hot-iron dehorning. Journal of Dairy Science 92:1512–1519. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1578
    86. Stewart M, Verkerk GA, Stafford KJ, Schaefer AL, Webster JR (2010) Noninvasive assessment of autonomic activity for evaluation of pain in calves, using surgical castration as a model. Journal of Dairy Science 93:3602–3609. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3114
    87. Stewart M, Webster J, Schaeder A (2008) Infrared thermography and heart rate variability for non-invasive assessment of animal welfare. ANZCCART Humane Science News 1–6.
    88. Teixeira RC, Monteiro ER, Campagnol D, Coelho K, Bressan TF, Monteiro BS (2013) Effects of tramadol alone, in combination with meloxicam or dipyrone, on postoperative pain and the analgesic requirement in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy with or without ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 40:641–649. https://doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12080
    89. Travain T, Colombo ES, Heinzl E, Bellucci D, Prato Previde E, Valsecchi P (2015) Hot dogs: Thermography in the assessment of stress in dogs (Canis familiaris)—A pilot study. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 10:17–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2014.11.003
    90. Tusell JM, Andaluz A, Prandi D, Costa C, Garcı́a F (2005) Effects of epidural anaesthesia–analgesia on intravenous anaesthesia with propofol. The Veterinary Journal 169:108–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2004.01.030
    91. Vainionpää M, Salla K, Restitutti F, Raekallio M, Junnila J, Snellman M, Vainio O (2013) Thermographic imaging of superficial temperature in dogs sedated with medetomidine and butorphanol with and without MK-467 (L-659'066). Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 40:142–148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2012.00768.x
    92. Valverde A (2008) Epidural Analgesia and Anesthesia in Dogs and Cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 38:1205–1230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.06.004
    93. Villanueva-García D, Mota-Rojas D, Martínez-Burnes J, Olmos-Hernández A, Mora-Medina P, Salmerón C, et al (2021) Hypothermia in newly born piglets: Mechanisms of thermoregulation and pathophysiology of death. Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 9:1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.31893/jabb.21001
    94. Wendt-Hornickle E, Snyder LB (2016) Comparison of anesthesia with a morphine-lidocaine-ketamine infusion or a morphine-lidocaine epidural on time to extubation in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 43:86–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12273
    95. Witkowska-Piłaszewicz O, Grzędzicka J, Seń J, Seń J, Czopowicz M, Żmigrodzka M, Winnicka A, Cywińska A, Carter C (2021) Stress response after race and endurance training sessions and competitions in Arabian horses. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 188:105265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105265
    96. Zanghi BM (2016) Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 3: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2016.00111
    97. Zhang S, Li J, Luan L, Guan W, Hu X, Fan H (2017) Comparison of the effects of nefopam and tramadol on postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Veterinární Medicína 62:131–137. https://doi.org/10.17221/53/2016-VETMED

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology

How to cite

Casas-Alvarado, A., Mota-Rojas, D., Hernández-Ávalos, I., Martínez-Burnes, J., Rosas, M. E., Miranda-Cortés, A., Domínguez-Oliva, A., & Mora-Medina, P. (2023). Assessment of thermal response, cardiorespiratory parameters and post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy with different combinations of epidural analgesia and isoflurane. Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology, 11(1), e2023009. https://doi.org/10.31893/jabb.23009
  • Article viewed - 351
  • PDF downloaded - 94