Water plays a crucial role in all aspects of our lives, including the economy, food security, production, and politics, making it essential for sustainable development. Surface water pollution, which includes rivers, lakes, and oceans, is a significant environmental concern. Oued D'Hous, located in the Wilaya of Bouira in Algeria, is the subject of our research, which examines its hydrochemical pollution resulting from the discharge of domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater from the city. The evaluation of the physicochemical parameters reveals that the existing pollutant levels in Oued D'Hous have significantly increased, leading to a high degree of toxicity that threatens the area's flora and fauna. This pollution also limits the use of this resource by humans. We call upon the competent authorities to promptly limit the discharge of these hazardous effluents into Oued D'Hous to prevent further water contamination and reduce the risk of adverse health effects on the public, including those who use the wells located in the vicinity. In conclusion, immediate measures are necessary to mitigate the severe pollution of Oued D'Hous, and we urge the authorities to take action to address this pressing environmental concern.