Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of Solanum mammosum (L.) fruit extract against Drosophila melanogaster
Keywords:Solanum mammosum (L.), fruit fly, enzyme inhibition, esterase, phosphatase, phytochemical
Solanum mammosum (L.) is known as a poisonous plant and has been extensively used for anti-cancer, antifungal, antibacterial properties. However, the effectiveness of Solanum mammosum against insects has not been fully reported yet. To assess the ability of Solanum mammosum fruit extract against insects, we used fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) as a model. In this study, our results showed that phytochemicals and many secondary metabolites were present in Solanum mammosum fruit extracts such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, steroids-triterpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content were also determined to be 275±1.89 mg GAE/g extract and 676±5.14 mg QE/g extract, respectively. Besides, Solanum mammosum fruit extract caused lethal to 2nd instar, reduced a pupae formation rate of Drosophila larvae. Interestingly, Solanum mammosum extract is more effective in the suppression of pupae eclosion than Ascend as a commercial pesticide. These phenomena might be associated with reduced accumulation of energy, including carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. In addition, the activities of esterases and phosphatases were inhibited in Drosophila by the intake of Solanum mammosum. The study concluded that Solanum mammosum has great potential as an insecticidal agent.
Alzérreca A, Hart G (1982) Molluscicidal steroid glycoalkaloids possessing stereoisomeric spirosolane structures. Toxicol. Lett. 12:151–155.
Attaullah, Zahoor MK, Zahoor MA, Mubarik MS, Rizvi H, Majeed HN, Zulhussnain M, Ranian K, Sultana K, Imran M, Qamer S (2020) Insecticidal, biological and biochemical response of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to some indigenous weed plant extracts. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 27:106–116.
Bagu GD, Omale S, Iorjiim WM, Uguru MO, Gyang SS (2020) Determination of LD50, fecundity and locomotor effects of methanol root extract of Ximenia americana (L.), in Drosophila melanogaster. Asian J. Biochem. Genet. Mol. Biol. 5:1–9.
Bensafi-Gheraibia H, Kissoum N, Hamida ZC, Farine JP, Soltani N (2021) Topical bioassay of Oberon® on Drosophila melanogaster pupae: delayed effects on ovarian proteins, cuticular hydrocarbons and sexual behavior. Invertebr. Reprod. Dev. 65:35–47.
Bhaigyabati T, Devi PG, Bag GC (2014) Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of aqueous rhizome extract of three Hedychium species of Manipur valley. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci. 5:970–976.
Binh TD, Pham TLA, Men TT, Dang TTP, Kamei K (2019) LSD-2 dysfunction induces dFoxO-dependent cell death in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 509:491–497.
Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72:248–254.
Chowański S, Adamski Z, Marciniak P, Rosiński G, Büyükgüzel E, Büyükgüzel K, Falabella P, Scrano L, Ventrella E, Lelario F, Bufo SA (2016) A review of bioinsecticidal activity of Solanaceae alkaloids. Toxins (Basel). 8:1–28.
Binh TD, Pham TLA, Nishihara T, Men TT, Kamei K (2019) The function of Lipin in the wing development of Drosophila melanogaster. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20:3288.
Franzetti E, Romanelli D, Caccia S, Cappellozza S, Congiu T, Rajagopalan M, Grimaldi A, de Eguileor M, Casartelli M, Tettamanti G (2015) The midgut of the silkmoth Bombyx mori is able to recycle molecules derived from degeneration of the larval midgut epithelium. Cell Tissue Res. 361:509–528.
Hamida ZC, Farine JP, Ferveur JF, Soltani N (2021) Pre-imaginal exposure to Oberon® disrupts fatty acid composition, cuticular hydrocarbon profile and sexual behavior in Drosophila melanogaster adults. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part - C Toxicol. Pharmacol. 243:108981.
Hanelt P, Büttner R, Mansfeld R (2001) Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg.
Indrayanto G, Sutarjadi I (1986) Sterols in callus cultures of Solanum mammosum. Planta Med. 5:413.
Kissoum N, Bensafi-Gheraibia H, Hamida ZC, Soltani N (2020) Evaluation of the pesticide Oberon on a model organism Drosophila melanogaster via topical toxicity test on biochemical and reproductive parameters. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part - C Toxicol. Pharmacol. 228:108666
Kudale S, Ghatge S, Shivekar A, Sule C, Desai N (2016) Comparative study of antioxidant potential in hairy roots and field grown roots of Solanum nigrum L. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 5:42–54.
Lim TK (2016) Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Springer, Dordrecht.
Lim TK (2013) Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants: Volume 6, fruits. Edible Med. Non-Medicinal Plants. 6:1–606.
Luna EM, Freitas TS, Campina FF, Costa MS, Rocha JE, Cruz RP, Sena Júnior DL, Silveira ZS, Macedo NS, Pinheiro JCA, Pereira-Júnior FN, Lisboa MAN, Cruz GV, Calixto Júnior JT, Teixeira AMR, Coutinho HDM (2021) Evaluation of phytochemical composition, toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster and effects on antibiotics modulation of Plathymenia reticulata (B.) extract. Toxicol. Reports 8:732–739.
Mabberley DJ (2017) Mabberley’s Plant-book: A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, 4th ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Menozzi P, Shi MA, Lougarre A, Tang ZH, Fournier D (2004) Mutations of acetylcholinesterase which confer insecticide resistance in Drosophila melanogaster populations. BMC Evol. Biol. 4:4.
Nielsen SS (2017) Total carbohydrate by phenol-sulfuric acid method. In: Food analysis laboratory manual. Food Science Text Series. Springer, Cham.
Parkash R, Aggarwal DD (2012) Trade-off of energy metabolites as well as body color phenotypes for starvation and desiccation resistance in montane populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 161:102–113.
Peres LLS, Sobreiro AI, Couto IFS, Silva RM, Pereira FF, Heredia-Vieira SC, Cardoso CAL, Mauad M, Scalon SPQ, Verza SS, Mussury RM (2017) Chemical compounds and bioactivity of aqueous extracts of Alibertia spp. in the control of Plutella xylostella (L.) Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Insects 8:125.
Pilaquinga F, Morey J, Fernandez L, Espinoza-Montero P, Moncada-Basualto M, Pozo-Martinez J, Olea-Azar C, Bosch R, Meneses L, Debut A, Piña MN (2021) Determination of antioxidant activity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity, cellular antioxidant activity, electrochemical and microbiological analyses of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum mammosum (L.). Int. J. Nanomedicine 16:5879–5894.
Quijano M, Riera-Ruíz C, Barragán A, Miranda M, Orellana T, Manzano P (2014) Molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts from Solanum mammosum (L.), Sapindus saponaria (L.) and Jatropha curcas (L.), against Pomacea canaliculata. Emirates J. Food Agric. 26:871–877.
Riaz B, Zahoor M, Majeed HN, Javed I, Ahmad A, Jabeen F, Zulhussnain M, Sultana K (2018) Toxicity, phytochemical composition, and enzyme inhibitory activities of some indigenous weed plant extracts in fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2018:11
Roddick JG (1996) Steroidal glycoalkaloids: nature and consequences of bioactivity-saponins used in traditional and modern medicine, In: Waller, G.R., Yamasaki, K. (Eds.), Springer US, Boston, MA, 277–295.
Rodrigues GCS, Dos Santos Maia M, Silva Cavalcanti AB, de Sousa NF, Scotti MT, Scotti, L (2021) In silico studies of lamiaceae diterpenes with bioinsecticide potential against Aphis gossypii and Drosophila melanogaster, Molecules. 26:766
Seelkopf C (1968) Alkaloid glycosides of the fruit from Solanum mammosum (L.). Arch. Pharm. Ber. Dtsch. Pharm. Ges. 301:111–114.
Senthil NS, Young CM, Yul SH, Hoon PC, Kalaivani K, Duk KJ (2008) Effect of azadirachtin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and histology of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 70:244–250.
Singh H, Dixit S, Verma PC, Singh PK (2014) Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:2588–2594.
Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RMBTME (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent, In: Oxidants and Antioxidants Part A. Academic Press. 152–178.
Sofowora A (1993) Recent trends in research into African medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 38:197–208.
Structures MB (2000) Inhibition of α-glucosidase and amylase by luteolin, a flavonoid. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64:2458–2461.
Telek L, Delpin H, Cabanillas E (1977) Solanum mammosum as a source of solasodine in the lowland tropics. Econ. Bot. 31:120–128.
Valéria Soares de Araújo Pinho F, Felipe da Silva G, Echeverria Macedo G, Raquel Muller K, Kemmerich Martins I, Lausmann Ternes AP, Martins da Costa JG, Athayde ML, Boligon AA, Kamdem JP, Franco JL, Rose Alencar de Menezes I, Posser T (2014) Phytochemical constituents and toxicity of Duguetia furfuracea hydroalcoholic extract in Drosophila melanogaster (2014) Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014:838101.
Wong CC (2007) Isolation of saponins from Solanum mammosum and characterization of their anticancer activity by proteomics. Dissertation. Hong Kong University.
Younes MWF, El Othman ME, Youssef NS, Omar GA, Salah A (2011) Effect of seven plant oils on some biochemical parameters in Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (E.) Coleoptera: Dermestidae. J. Exp. Biol. 7:53-61.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.