The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production under the influence of two sources of phytochemicals: essential oils (EOs) and aqueous extracts (AEs). Treatments were set up in a completely randomized block design, with 4×2+1 factorial arrangement of four species, S (garlic, G; cinnamon, C; rosemary, R; eucalyptus; EU) × two types of presentation, P (essential oil, EO; aqueous extract, AE) and a basal diet, BD (50% concentrate, 20% alfalfa and 30% corn silage). Rumen fermentation was evaluated using the in vitro gas production technique. All experimental units were incubated with 500 mg of BD for 72 hours. Treatments were added at a single dose of 900 mg/L of rumen inoculum. Gas pressure was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 60 and 72 h post-incubation. There was an interaction effect (P × S) between plant extract presentation (P) and plant species (S) for all variables. Treatments GEO, CEO, REO decreased volatile fatty acids (mmol/200 mg), microbial mass production (mg/g), CH4 production (mL/g), in vitro dry matter digestibility (P < 0.05), and total gas production at 24 and 72 h post-incubation (P < 0.05; mL/g DM, mL/g OM). No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between AEs and BD. In conclusion, the use of EOs negatively affected rumen fermentation parameters and the production of CH4. Garlic and cinnamon EOs effectively reduced methane emissions; however, they also reduced in vitro dry matter digestibility.