Nutrient status, hematological and blood metabolite profile of mid-lactating dairy cows during wet and dry seasons raised under Indonesian tropical environmental conditions
Keywords:blood metabolite profile, dairy cows, hematology, mid-lactation, season
This study was conducted to determine the nutrient status, changes in the hematological and selected blood metabolites profile of mid-lactating dairy cows during wet and dry seasons under Indonesia’s tropical environment. Forty mid-lactating FH cows were selected from the Livestock Farm Complex (Dairy Community) in Yogyakarta, with an average body weight of 421.77±28.60 kg and 1st to 3rd lactation. They were housed in a semi-open housing system with concrete flooring covered with rubber mats and provided with feeders and drinkers. They were fed twice daily, and drinking water was given ad libitum. Measurements were made on the intakes of feed (and nutrients). The variables measured were nutrient intakes, blood hematology, and metabolites profile and measured over two seasons, namely wet and dry seasons. The results of the measurements made were compared using independent t-test analysis. The result indicated that intake of CP, RLYM, RNEUT, NEUT, RBC, HGB, MCV, MCHC, MPV, albumin, urea nitrogen, and total protein was differed significantly (P < 0.05) between wet and dry seasons, respectively. It was concluded that the nutrient status of mid-lactating dairy cows in the wet season was higher than during the dry season, especially the intake of CP. In the wet season, it has a positive effect on the basic hematological parameters.
Aengwanich W, Chantiratikul A, Pamok S (2009) Effect of seasonal variations on hematological values and health monitor of crossbred beef cattle at slaughterhouse in northeastern part of Thailand. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 5:644-648.
Allen MS (2000) Effects of diet on short-term regulation of feed intake by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 83:1598-1624.
Antunovic Z, Novoselec J, Sauerwein H, Speranda M, Vegara M, Pavic V (2011) Blood metabolic profile and some of hormones concentration in ewes during different physiological status. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 17:687-695.
AOAC (2005) Official Method of Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 18th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Benjamin Franklin Station. Washington, DC., USA.
BPS (2010). Statistik Indonesia 2010 [Statistics Indonesia 2010]. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), Jakarta, Indonesia, (In Indonesian).
Brucka-Jastrzębska E, Kawczuga D, Brzezińska M, Orowicz W, Lidwinkaźmierkiewicz M (2007) Zależność parametrów hematologicznych bydła rasy simental od stanu fizjologicznego (Dependence of hematological parameters in Simmental breed cattle on physiological conditions). In Polish, summary in English. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 63:1583-1586.
Brzóska F (2005) Effect of soybean meal protected with Ca salts of fatty acids on cows’ yield, protein and fat components in milk and blood. Annals of Animal Science 5:111-123.
Brzóska F (2006) Effect of rapeseed meal protected with calcium salts of fatty acids from linseed oil on cows’ yield and milk and blood parameters. Annals of Animal Science 6:87-99.
Cantalapiedra-Hijar G, Yanez-Ruiz DR, Martin-Garcia AI, Molina-Alcaide E (2009) Effects of forage: concentrate ratio and forage type on apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial growth in goats. Journal of Animal Science 87:622-631.
Casella S, Scianò S, Zumbo A, Monteverde V, Fazio F, Piccione G (2013) Effect of seasonal variations in Mediterranean area on haematological profile in dairy cow. Comparative Clinical Pathologhy 22:691-695.
Cerutti RD, Scaglione MC, Arfuso F, Rizzo M, Piccione G (2018). Seasonal variations of some hematochemical parameters in Holstein bovine under the same livestock conditions. Veterinarski Arhiv 88:309-321.
De Rensis F, Scaramuzzi RJ (2003) Heat stress and seasonal effects on reproduction in the dairy cow - a review. Theriogenology 60:1139-1151.
Delany KK, Macmillan KL, Grainger C, Thomson PC, Blache D, Nicholas KR Auldist MJ (2010) Blood plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and glucose during extended lactation in grazing cows or cows fed a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science 93:5913-5920.
Deptuła W, Dorynek Z (1993) Kształtowanie się wskaźników hematologicznych I biochemicznych u krów mlecznych w cyklu rocznym (Modification of hematological and biochemical indexes in dairy cows in the annual cycle). In Polish. Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu 246:15-21.
Hernawan AE (2014) Effect of banana peel application in ration on hematological level, nitrogen retention and body weight gain of heat exposed broiler chicken. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science 42:101-107.
Hoff B, Duffield T (2003) Nutritional and metabolic profile testing of dairy cows. AHL LabNote 4:1-3.
Khalili M, Chamani M, Amanlou H, Nikkhah A, Sadeghi AA, Dehkordi FK, Rafiei M, Shirani V (2020) The effect of feeding inorganic and organic selenium sources on the hematological blood parameters, reproduction and health of dairy cows in the transition period. Acta Scientiarum Animal Science 42:1-10.
Kumar B, Pachaura SP (2000) Hematological profile of crossbreed dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in central Himalayas. Research in Veterinary Science 69:141-145.
Le Floc'h N, Melchior D, Obled C (2004) Modifications of protein and amino acid metabolism during inflammation and immune system activation. Livestock Production Science 87:37-45.
Mazzullo G, Rifici C, Cammarata F, Caccamo G, Rizzo M, Piccione G (2014) Effect of different environmental conditions on some haematological parameters in cow. Annals of Animal Science 14:947-954.
Morris DD (2009) Alterations in the Leukogram. In: Smith BP (2009) Large Animal Internal Medicine. 4th Edition. Mosby, St. Louis. 405-410.
NRC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA.
Patel B, Kumar N, Jain V, Kumar F, Ajithakumar HM, Naik MA, Lathwal SS (2017) Haematological status of karan fries cows during transition period in hot humid condition. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 6:793-797.
Quiroz-Rocha GF, LeBlanc SJ, Duffield TF, Wood D, Leslie KE, Jacobs RM (2009) Reference limits for biochemical and hematological analytes of dairy cows one week before and one week after parturition. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 50:383-388.
Ramos S, Tejido ML, Martinez ME, Ranilla MJ, Carro MD (2009) Microbial protein synthesis, ruminal digestion, microbial populations and nitrogen balance in sheep fed diets varying in forage-to-concentrate ratio and type of forage. Journal of Animal Science 87:2924-2934.
Rochijan, Widyobroto BP, Ismaya (2016a) Effect of high rumen undegraded protein (HRUP) supplementation on estrous response and progesterone hormone profile in dairy cows raised under Indonesia tropical environmental conditions. Asian Journal of Animal Science 10:175-181.
Rochijan, Widyobroto BP, Ismaya (2016b) Impact of high rumen undegraded protein (HRUP) supplementation to blood urea nitrogen and reproduction performance in early lactation dairy cows. International Journal of Dairy Science 11:28-34.
Scamell JM (2006) Healthy land for healthy cattle. Cattle Practice 14:143-152.
Sejrsen K, Hvelplundand T, Nielson MO (2006) Ruminant Physiology: Digestion, Metabolism and Impact of Nutrition on Gene Expression, Immunology and Stress. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands. ISBN-13: 9789076998640.
Widyobroto BP, Rochijan, Noviandi CT, Astuti A (2019) Microenvironment identification and the feed availability for dairy cows during dry and wet seasons in the main dairy areas of Yogyakarta – Indonesia. Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology 7:86-91.
Winnicka A (2008) Wartości referencyjne podstawowych badań laboratoryjnych w weterynarii (Reference values in basic laboratory analyses in veterinary medicine). In Polish. Wydawnictwo Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warszawa 99:17-39.
Yousef MK (1985) Stress Physiology in Livestock. Vol. 1. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.