Elevated temperature-humidity index induces physiological, blood and milk alterations in Holstein cows in a more pronounced manner than in ½ and ¾ Holstein × Gir
Keywords:Blood alterations, Dairy cattle, Heat tolerance, Milk yield, Physiology
Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle subspecies present different capabilities in coping with situations of elevated temperatures, the latter being more tolerant to heat stress. Thus, some breeding programs crossed these subspecies to produce a high producing yet heat-tolerant breed (Girolando). Nineteen Holstein (H100) and 19 Girolando cows [(½ Holstein x Gir (H50) and ¾ Holstein x Gir (H75)] with similar milk production were used in a six-day experiment to evaluate the consequences of heat stress due to shade deprivation on their physiological, blood and milk traits. Cows were exposed to a non-shaded environment between morning (06:00h; GMT -3:00) and evening milking (14:30h; GMT -3:00) with access to water ad libitum. Procedures were conducted before morning and evening milkings. Physiological parameters related to mechanisms of heat dissipation were measured, as well as the milk composition. Blood traits were evaluated. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance, correlation and principal factors. THI was elevated during the entire trial and negatively impacted physiological, milk and blood parameters in H100, H75 and H50. Alterations in physiology, milk stability, milk composition and blood traits were more pronounced in H100. Holstein cows presented changes in physiological parameters in a more pronounced manner and in some milk and blood traits related to the reduced capability of this breed in dealing with elevated THI. The similarity in milk production levels excludes this parameter as a justification for differences in heat tolerance, with genetic composition being the main reason for this results.
Abeni F, Calamari L, Stefanini L (2007) Metabolic conditions of lactating Friesian cows during the hot season in the Po valley. 1. Blood indicators of heat stress. International Journal of Biometeorology 52:87-96.
Abreu A, Fischer V, Stumpf M, McManus, C, González F, Da Silva J, Heisler G (2020) Natural tree shade increases milk stability of lactating dairy cows during the summer in the subtropics. Journal of Dairy Research 87:444-447.
Alfonzo EPM, Silva MVGB, Daltro DS, Stumpf MT, Dalcin VC, Kolling GJ, Fischer V, McManus CM (2015) Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups. International Journal of Biometeorology 60:245-53.
Azevedo M, Pires MFA, Saturnino HM, Lana AMQ, Sampaio IBM, Monteiro JBN, Morato LE (2005) Estimation of upper critical levels of the temperature-humidity Index for 1/2, 3/4 e 7/8 lactating holstein-Zebu dairy cows. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 34:2000-2008.
Baumgard LH, Rhoads RP (2007) The effects of heat stress on production and its nutritional implications. Proceedings Penn State Cattle Nutrition Workshop, 29-38.
Benezra MV (1954). A new index measuring the adaptability of cattle to tropical conditions. Journal of Animal Science 13:1015-1015.
Berman A (2012) From heat tolerance do heat stress relief: an evolution of notions in animal farming. In: Collier RJ, Collier JL (eds) Environmental physiology of livestock, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Chichester, pp 1-16.
Bernabucci U, Lacetera N, Ronchi B, Nardone A (2002) Effects of the hot season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows. Animal Research 51:25-33.
Cerutti WG, Bermudes RF, Viégas J, Martins CMMR (2013) Physiological and productive responses of Holstein cows in fosterage submitted or not to shading and aspersion in premilking. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 14:406-412.
Cheung SS, McLellan TM (1998) Heat acclimation, aerobic fitness, and hydration effects on tolerance during uncompensable heat stress. Journal of Applied Physiology 84:1731-1739.
Collier RJ, Dahl GE, VanBaale MJ (2006) Major advances associated with environmental effects on dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 89:1244-1253.
Conte G, Ciampolini R, Cassandro M, Lasagna E, Calamari L, Bernabucci U, Abeni F (2018) Feeding and nutrition management of heat-stressed dairy ruminants. Italian Journal of Animal Science 17:604-620.
Corash L, Shafer B, Perlow M (1978) Heterogeneity of human whole blood platelet subpopulations. II. Use of a subhuman primate model to analyze the relationship between density and platelet age. Blood 52:726-734.
Costa NS, Silva MVGB, Panetto JCC, Machado MA, Seixas L, Peripolli V, Guimarães, RF, Carvalho Jr, OA, Vieira RA McManus C (2020) Spatial dynamics of the Girolando breed in Brazil: analysis of genetic integration and environmental factors. Tropical Animal Health and Production 52:3869-3883.
Daltro DD, Silva MVGB, Gama LT, Machado JD, Kern EL, Campos GS, Panetto JC Cobuci JA (2020) Estimates of genetic and crossbreeding parameters for 305-day milk yield of Girolando cows. Italian Journal of Animal Science 14:86-94.
Donnelly WJ, Horne DS (1986) Relationship between ethanol stability of bovine milk and natural variations in milk composition. Journal of Dairy Research 53:23-33.
Eigenberg RA, Brown-Brandl TM, Nienaber JA, Hahn GL (2005) Dynamic response indicators of heat stress in shaded and non-shaded feedlot cattle, Part 2. Predictive relationships. Biosystems Engineering 91:111-118.
El-Nouty FD, Al-Haidary AA, Salah MS (1990) Seasonal variation in hematological values of high and average-yielding Holstein cattle in semi-arid environment. Journal of King Saud University 2:173-182.
Gebremedhin KG (2012) Heat stress and evaporative cooling. In: Collier RJ, Collier JL (eds) Environmental physiology of livestock, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Chichester, pp 35-48.
Giustini L, Acciaioli A, Pianaccioli L, Surace R, Franci O (2007) Thermic stress effect on the main qualitative parameters of milk produced in the Mugello. Scientia e Tecnica Lattiero-Casearia 58:383-402.
Hansen PJ (2004) Physiological and cellular adaptations of zebu cattle to thermal stress. Animal Reproduction Science 82:349-360.
Hillman PE, Lee CN, Willard ST (2005) Thermoregulatory responses associated with lying and standing in heat stressed dairy cows. Transactions of the ASAE 48:795-801.
Jain NC (1993) Essentials of Veterinary Hematology. Lee &Febiger, Philadelphia.
Keatinge WR, Coleshaw SRK, Easton JC, Cotter F, Mattock B, Chelliah R (1986) Increased platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and plasma cholesterol levels during heat stress, and mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis. American Journal of Medicine 81:795-800.
Lacy-Hulbert SJ, Woolford MW, Nicholas GD, Prosser CG, Stelwagen K (1999) Effect of milking frequency and pasture intake on milk yield and composition of late lactation cows. Journal of Dairy Science 82:1232-1239. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75346-4.
Lassen DE, Swardson CJ (1995) Hematology and hemostasis in the horse: normal functions and common abnormalities. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 11:351-389.
Lee JA, Roussel JD, Beatty JF (1976) Effect of temperature season on bovine adrenal cortical function; blood cell proﬁle and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 59:104-109.
Mackle TR, Bryant AM, Petch SF, Hill JP, Auldist MJ (1999) Nutritional influences on the com- position of milk from cows of different protein phenotypes in New Zealand. Journal of Dairy Science 82:172-180.
Mader TL, Davis MS, Brown-Brandl T (2006) Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84:712-719.
Maia ASC, Silva RG, Loureiro CMB (2005) Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 50:17-22.
McManus CM, Faria DA, Bem AD, Maranhão AQ, Paiva SR (2020) Physiology and genetics of heat stress in cattle. CAB Reviews 15:1-12.
McManus CM, Louvandini H, Paim TP, Silva FCP, Bernal FEB (2014) Factors affecting heat tolerance in crossbred cattle in central Brazil. Ciência Animal Brasileira 15:152-158.
McManus CM, Prescott E, Paludo GR, Bianchini E, Louvandini H, Mariante AS (2009) Heat tolerance in naturalized Brazilian cattle breeds. Livestock Science 120:256-264
Mota LS (1997) Adaptação e interação genótipo-ambiente em vacas leiteiras. Tese, Universidade de São Paulo.
National Research Council (1971) A guide to environmental research on animals. National Academy of Sciences, Washington.
Pires MFA, Campos AT (2004) Modificações ambientais para reduzir o estresse calórico em gado de leite. Embrapa, Juiz de Fora.
Purwanto BP, Abo Y, Sakamoto R, Furumoto F, Yamamoto S (1990) Diurnal patterns of heat production and heart rate under thermoneutral conditions in Holstein Friesian cows differing in milk production. The Journal of Agricultural Science 114:139-142
Silva IJO, Pandorth H, Acararo Jr E, Piedade SMS, Moura DJ (2002) Effects of climatization of the corral of wait on milk production of Holstein cows. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 31:2036-2042.
Silva JED, Barbosa SBP, Abreu BDS, Santoro KR, Silva ECD, Batista ÂMV, Martinez RLV (2018) Effect of somatic cell count on milk yield and milk components in Holstein cows in a semi-arid climate in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 19:391-402.
Stumpf MT, Fischer V, McManus CM, Kolling GJ, Zanela MB, Santos CS, Abreu AS, Montagner P (2013) Severe feed restriction increases permeability of mammary gland cell tight junctions and reduces ethanol stability of milk. Animal 7:1137-1142.
West JW (2003) Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 86:2131-2144.
Wheelock JB, Rhoads RP, VanBaale MJ, Sanders SR, Baumgard LH (2010) Effects of heat stress on energetic metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 93:644-655.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.