• Abstract

    This study aimed to determine annual livestock mortality in a farm with cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and ostriches in Botswana. Data were collected weekly from March 2020 to February 2021. Post-mortem examinations were performed on a few animals from each livestock species. A questionnaire was administered to nine experienced practicing veterinarians to rate selected risk factors for relevance to livestock mortality. Simple arithmetic was used to compute absolute mortality and mortality rates. Differences in mortality rates between animal groups were determined using a statistical difference calculator. Absolute mortality was highest in summer and autumn and lowest in winter. Mortality was highest in goats and least in sheep. The mortality of young animals was more than twice that of adults. All Ostriches (n=3) died at a significantly higher rate (p < 0.05) than other livestock. Conversely, sheep died at a lower rate (p< 0.05) than other livestock. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mortality rates of pigs and goats. Although the mortality rate of Friesian cattle (11.1%), was almost twice that of Tswana cattle (6.7%), the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Interestingly mortality rate of Tswana goats was significantly more (p < 0.05)  than that of Saanen goats. Post-mortem identified Haemonchosis, heartwater, poor nutrition, and poor hygiene as either a cause or suspected cause of livestock mortality. Experts rated risk factors as either considerable causes, contributory causes, or aggravating livestock mortality. The importance of livestock mortality and the major risk factors associated with such mortality are discussed

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Ramabu, S. S., Tlotleng, K., Tladi, M., Mosweu, N., Molatole, M., & Waugh, E. E. (2023). Annual Livestock Mortality in A mixed Farm in Botswana Reveals Seasonality and Differences in Species, Age, and Risk Factors. Applied Veterinary Research, (| Accepted Articles). Retrieved from https://malque.pub/ojs/index.php/avr/article/view/671
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