Climate change is considered a main factor that negatively impacts agriculture and animal production. In addition, it also influences the animal's immune functions and diet intake, making it susceptible to infectious diseases. Recent nutritional research involving genomics proposes a rational ability to prevent disease occurrences. Scientific evidence in genomic sequencing discloses opportunities for discovering diet health associations and prospective for individual phenotypes and genotypes based on dietary suggestions. This review covers climate change, nutrition, and immune function on dairy cows' health and diseases. Strategies to increase dairy cow milk productive yield through nutritional interventions offer the prospect of improving their milk production performances and animal welfare. This review also addresses how such nutrition manipulations can enhance dairy cows' immune function and productivity. The principal competencies covered in this review are the evolutionary impacts of climate change on animals, climate change on livestock diseases, nutrition and clinical practice in dairy cows, and the influences of malnutrition on dairy cow diseases. In addition, the article discussed a common origin for immunity and digestion, the evolution of transgenerational immunity, nutrition, and immune function, and their impact on cattle. Moreover, the review covered the interaction between nutrition and immune function and their influence on the health problems of dairy cows. Finally, the review discussed the application of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in milk production in dairy cows and strategies for preventing disease during early lactation.