• Abstract

    Slaughtering pregnant cattle for meat is unethical, impends food security, and brings animal cruelty. A six-month study spinning from June and December 2020 was carried out to determine the number of Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSHZ) slaughtered cattle, level of fetal wastage, number, size, and morphology of placentomes and their relationship with fetal age, sex, weight, and location in uteri. Results showed that 15,239 cattle were slaughtered, of which 99% (n=15,087) were TSHZ aged above three years. 61.38% (n= 9,353) of slaughtered cattle were female cattle, of which 2,599 (27.79%) were pregnant at varied gestation periods, and only 5,886 (38.63%) were males. Recovered fetuses were 1,450 (55.79%) males and 1,149 (44.21%) females, with a total of 1,081 (41.59%), 919 (35.36%), and 599 (23.05%) recovered in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Fetal ages varied from 2.2 to 8.9 months, with body length (crown-crump) ranging from 13.7 to 83.1 cm. Fetus weight ranged from 1.1 kg to 23.2 kg. A total of 1545 (59.45%) pregnancies were localized in the right uterine horn, whereas 1054 (40.55%) were in the left uterine horn. The number of placentomes was significantly larger (P < 0.05) in gravid horns ranging from 71 to 115, than in non-gravid horns (5-28). Placentomes in gravid horn were greatly vascularized, large in size, convex in shape, and measured 7 cm in length and 2 cm in width. In non-gravid horns, placentomes were pale, small, and flat and measured 4 cm in length and 1 cm in width. At the microscopic level, the fetal cotyledons comprised a chorionic plate with a smooth external surface of cuboidal epithelium. From the chorionic plate's internal surface, numerous primary villi sprout inside in a pinnate fashion, producing secondary and tertiary villi. A significant fetal loss was resulting from the slaughter of pregnant animals warrants stepping up routine veterinary ante-mortem inspection of traded animals to salvage the high level of fetal wastage.

  • References

    1. Abd-Elnaeim MMM, Miglino MA, Pfarrer C, Leiser R (2003) Microvascular architecture of the foetal cotyledons in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during different stages of pregnancy. Annals of Anatomy 185:325-334.
    2. Addass PA, Midau A, Milka M, Tizhe MA (2010) Assessment of abattoir foetal wastage of cattle, sheep and goats in Mubi Main Abattoir Adamawa State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 6:132-137.
    3. Ardo MB, Lawal H, Aliyara YH (2013) Economic implication of bovine foetal wastage in Yola modern abattoir, Adamawa state, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine Sciences 7:1-10.
    4. Atawalna J, Emikpe BO, Shaibu E, Mensah A, Eyarefe OD, Folitse RD (2013) Incidence of fetal wastage in cattle slaughtered at the Kumasi Abattoir, Kumasi, Ghana. Global Veterinaria 11:399-402.
    5. Carter AM, Mess AM (2017) The evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in carnivores and ungulates (Ferungulata). Animal Reproduction 14:124-135.
    6. Delgado C (2005) Rising demand for meat and milk in developing countries: implications for grasslands-based livestock production. Grassland: a global resource (ed. McGilloway D. A.), The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 29–39.
    7. Ekere SO, Njoga EO, Onunkwo JI, Njoga UJ (2018) Serosurveillance of Brucella antibody in food animals and role of slaughterhouse workers in spread of Brucella infection in Southeast Nigeria. Veterinary World 11:1171-1178.
    8. Folusho DA (2012) The development of the bovine placentome and associated structures during gestation. PhD thesis. Massey University, New Zealand.
    9. Hafez ESE (1954) The placentome in the buffalo. Acta Zoology 21:176-191.
    10. Hakoueu NBF, Nsadzetsen G, Mbiba HF, Wirndzerem FN, Isabelle LW, Munji VN, Bayemi PHD (2018) Incidence of foetal wastage in cattle slaughtered and its economic implications at the Bamenda city slaughter house, Cameroon. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 3:14-18.
    11. Hoffmann B, Schuler G (2002) The bovine placenta; a source and target of steroid hormones: observations during the second half of gestation. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 23:309-320.
    12. Hradecky P, Mossman HW, Stott GG (1988) Comparative histology of antelope placentomes. Theriogenology 29:693-713.
    13. Igwebuike UM, Ezeasor DN (2013) The morphology of placentomes and formation of chorionic villous trees in West African Dwarf goats (Capra hircus). Journal Veterinarski arhiv 83:313-321.
    14. Jarikre TA, Emikpe BO, Folitse RD, Odoom TK, Fuseini A, Shaibu E (2014) Assessment of fetal wastage in cattle, goat and sheep slaughtered at tamale abattoir, northern region, Ghana. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 62:31-35.
    15. Kalu E, Chukwuka ZN, Victoria UN, Obiageli OE, Chinonyerem UP (2019) Bovine Fetal Wastage in Ubakala Abattoir: Public Health and Economic Implications. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 14):47-52.
    16. Kashoma IP, Luziga C (2019) Comparative gross and histological morphology of goat (caprine) and sheep (ovine) placentomes. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 34:23-34.
    17. Kumar K, Chandolia RK, Kumar S, Pal M, Sandeep K (2015) Two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and antenatal fetal development in Beetal goats. Veterinary World 8:835–840.
    18. Laven RA, Peters AR (2001) Gross morphometry of the bovine placentome during gestation. Reproduction in Domestic Animal 36:289-296.
    19. Leiser R, Krebs C, Klisch K, Ebert B, Dantzer V, Schuler G, Hoffmann B (1997) Foetal villosity and microvasculature of the bovine placentome in the second half of gestation. Journal of Anatomy 191:517-527.
    20. Liu B, Cui Y, Yang B, Fan J, Zhao Z, Yu S (2010) Morphometric analysis of yak placentomes during gestation. Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 293:1873–1879.
    21. Maurer P, Lücker E, Riehn K (2016) Slaughter of pregnant cattle in German abattoirs—Current situation and prevalence: A cross-sectional study. BMC Veterinary Research. 12:91.
    22. Meaza M, Tamirat B, Demissie T (2017) Fetal Wastage and Morphometrical Study of Reproductive Organs of Local Zebu and Crossbred Female Cattle Slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise and Adama Municipal Abattoir, Central Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria 18:376-382.
    23. Mellau LSB, Nonga HE, Karimuribo ED (2011) Slaughter stock abattoir survey of carcasses and organs/offal condemnations in Arusha region, northern Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production 43:857–864.
    24. Mossman, H.W (1987) Vertebrate fetal membranes: comparative ontogeny and morphology, evolution, phylogenetic significance, basic functions, research opportunities. Rutger University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. pp. 404.
    25. Msafiri PA, Nonga HE, Kassuku AA (2014) Assessment of causes of organ condemnations, financial losses and foetal wastage in cattle slaughtered at Bukoba Municipal abattoir, Kagera, Tanzania. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 29:43-52.
    26. Msalya G, Kim ES, Laisser ELK, Kipanyula MJ, Karimuribo ED, Kusiluka LJM, Chenyambuga CM, Rothschild MF (2017) Determination of Genetic Structure and Signatures of Selection in Three Strains of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu, Boran and Friesian Cattle by Genome-Wide SNP Analyses. PLoS ONE 12:e0171088.
    27. Mutwedu VB, Buuma BK, Mushagalusa AC, Bisimwa NP, Cirezi NC, Mugumaarhahama Y, Ayagirwe RBB (2019) Prevalence and economic losses of calf fetal wastage in ELAKAT public slaughterhouse of Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Veterinary World 12:1644-1649.
    28. Nantongo Z, Kwizera H, Mpairwe D (2013) Foetal wastage, a challenge for Uganda's beef industry. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, pp. 56.
    29. Nielsen SS, Sandøe P, Kjølsted SU, Agerholm JS (2019) Slaughter of Pregnant Cattle in Denmark: Prevalence, Gestational Age, and Reasons. Animals 9:392.
    30. Njoga UJ, Njoga EO, Nwobi OC, Abonyi FO, Edeh HO, Ajibo FE, Azor N, Bello A, Upadhyay AK, Okpala COR, Korzeniowska M, Guiné RPF (2021) Slaughter Conditions and Slaughtering of Pregnant Cows in Southeast Nigeria: Implications to Meat Quality, Food Safety and Security. Foods 10:1298.
    31. Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GCW 2009 Veterinary reproduction and obstetrics, 9th edn. Saunders.
    32. Nonga HE (2015) A review on cattle foetal wastage during slaughter and its impacts to the future cattle herds in Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development 27:251.
    33. Nwakpu P E, Osakwe II (2007) Trends in volume and magnitude of foetal waste of slaughter Animals (2000–2005) in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Research Journal of Animal sciences 1:30-35.
    34. Oduguwa BO, Raimi CO, Talabi AO, Sogunle OM (2013) Fetal losses from slaughtering pregnant cows at Lafenwa abattoir in Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria. Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences 2:38-41.
    35. Okafor CL, Usende IL, Ezeasor ND, Onyiche ET (2013) Gross and Micro-Anatomical Observations on Fulani Zebu Placentome and its Relationship with some Foetal Parameters. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 1:353-359.
    36. Okoli CE, Njoga EO, Enem SI, Godwin EE, Nwanta JA, Chah KF (2018) Prevalence, toxigenic potential and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus isolated from ready-to-eat meats. Veterinary World 11:1214-1221.
    37. Peter AT, Beg MA, Ahmad E, Bergfelt DR (2017) Trophoblast of domestic and companion animals: basic and applied clinical perspectives. Animal Reproduction 14:1209-1224.
    38. Pfarrer C, Ebert B, Miglino MA, Klisch K, Leiser R (2001) The three‐dimensional feto‐maternal vascular interrelationship during early bovine placental development: a scanning electron microscopical study. Journal of Anatomy 198:591-602.
    39. Rakha AM, Igboeli G (1971) Physiology of pregnancy in tropically adapted cattle and morphological changes in the cow in relation to foetal development. Journal of Animal Science 33:643–646.
    40. Reynolds LP, Ferrell CL (1987) Transplacental clearance and blood flows of bovine gravid uterus at several stages of gestation. American Journal of Physiology 253:735–739.
    41. Ritz LR, Glowatzki-Mullis ML, MacHugh DE, Gaillard C (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini using microsatellites. Animal Genetics 31:178–185.
    42. Robinson TP, Pozzi F (2011) Mapping supply and demand for animal-source foods to 2030, Animal Production and Health Working Paper No. 2, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
    43. Salami SO, Raji MA, Ameh JA (2010) Foetal wastage through slaughtering of pregnant cows in Zaria, Nigeria. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Science 9:21-24.
    44. Schlafer DH, Fisher PJ, Davies CJ (2000) The bovine placenta before and after birth: placental development and function in health and disease. Animal Reproduction Science 60/61:145-160.
    45. Schmidt S, Gerber D, Soley JT, Aire TA, Boos A (2006) Histo-morphology of the uterus and early placenta of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and comparative placentome morphology of the African buffalo and cattle (Bos taurus). Placenta 27:899-911.
    46. Sohn JH, Yamane S, Saitoh Y, Kusakabe KT, Kimura J, Kiso Y (2021). Morphology of placentome in Korean water deer Hydropotes inermis argropus. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 83:1081–1085.
    47. Swai ES, Hayghaimo AA, Hassan AA, Mhina BS (2015) The slaughter of increased numbers of pregnant cows in Tanga abattoir, Tanzania: A cause for concern? Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 82:E1-5. doi: 10.4102/ojvr.v82i1.947.
    48. Tembo W, Nonga HE (2015) A survey of the causes of cattle organs and/or carcass condemnation, financial losses and magnitude of foetal wastage at an abattoir in Dodoma, Tanzania. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 82:E1-7. doi: 10.4102/ojvr.v82i1.855
    49. Thornton PK (2010) Livestock production: Recent trends, future prospects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:2853–2867.
    50. URT (2021) United Republic of Tanzania, National Sample Census of Agriculture 2019/20, Key Findings Report August https://www.nbs.go.tz/nbs/takwimu/Agriculture/2019-
    51. URT (2018) United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania National Projections, 2013-2035. Population and Housing Census, Ministry of Planning, Economy and Empowerment, Dar es Salaam.
    52. Wooding FB (1992) Current topic: the synepitheliochorial placenta of ruminants: binucleate cell fusions and hormone production. Placenta 13:101–113.
    53. Wooding FBP (2006) Analysis of the structure of the ruminant placenta: methods of fixation, embedding, and antibody localization at light and electron microscope levels. Methods in Molecular Medicine 121:315-322.
    54. Wooding P, Burton GJ (2008) Comparative placentation: structures, functions and evolution. Springer Verlag. pp. 304.
    55. Zitterer I, Paulsen P (2021) Slaughter of Pregnant Cattle at an Austrian Abattoir: Prevalence and Gestational Age. Animals 11: 2474. doi: 10.3390/ani11082474
    56. Zulu V, Mwanza AM, Banda FC, Yasuda J, Yoshida M (2013) Cattle reproductive wastage in Zambia: A case of Mongu abattoir. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University 63:49–54.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Applied Veterinary Research

How to cite

Kashoma, I. P., & Luziga, C. D. (2022). Slaughter of pregnant Tanzania shorthorn Zebu cattle at Morogoro abattoir: Prevalence, fetal wastage, and placentome morphology. Applied Veterinary Research, 2(1), 2023005. https://doi.org/10.31893/avr.2023005
  • Article viewed - 231
  • PDF downloaded - 96