• Abstract

    Metritis and endometritis are the most prevalent uterine inflammatory diseases in bovines and cause infertility and high economic loss to farmers. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanism of pathology, immune response and therapeutics associated with these diseases. This review focuses mainly on the immune system present in the uterus and on the involvement of Toll-like receptors. This study aimed to provide a deep understanding of the structure, function and expression pathways of Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) in the treatment of pathogenic microorganisms invading the uterus and their significance in inflammatory conditions such as metritis and clinical and subclinical endometritis. The genetic associations of TLRs with diseases and some therapeutic interventions are also briefly discussed. As such, TLRs-2 and 4 play a critical role in providing a uterine defense mechanism against foreign substances (embryos, sperm, and pathogenic bacteria). In the present era, the use of TLR agonists is being unfurled for treatment, and further exploration and study of this topic in the future are needed.

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Rana, S., Firdous, M., Bhat, G. R., Lone, F. A., Mylostyvyi, R., & Castelo, T. de S. (2024). Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4): putative role in the uterine inflammatory response in cows – A mini review. Applied Veterinary Research, 3(1), 2024003. https://doi.org/10.31893/avr.2024003
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